Next Article in Journal
Generic Learning-Based Ensemble Framework for Small Sample Size Face Recognition in Multi-Camera Networks
Next Article in Special Issue
A Vondrak Low Pass Filter for IMU Sensor Initial Alignment on a Disturbed Base
Previous Article in Journal
Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Hybrid Positioning Strategy for Vehicles in a Tunnel Based on RFID and In-Vehicle Sensors
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (Tran)SPORT Applications

1,2,* and 1
Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper 6000, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23490-23508;
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Positioning and Tracking Sensors and Technologies in Road Transport)
PDF [1384 KB, uploaded 8 December 2014]


Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1) how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2) how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s) and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Positioning System; measuring devices; sport; vehicle; velocity Global Positioning System; measuring devices; sport; vehicle; velocity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Supej, M.; Čuk, I. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (Tran)SPORT Applications. Sensors 2014, 14, 23490-23508.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top