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Open AccessArticle

The Yeast Atlas of Appalachia: Species and Phenotypic Diversity of Herbicide Resistance in Wild Yeast

Department of Biology, West Virginia University, 53 Campus Drive, Life Sciences Building, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
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Current Address: Department of Microbiology, West Virginia University, Immunology and Cell Biology, 1 Medical Center Drive Morgantown, WV 26506-9177, USA.
Diversity 2020, 12(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12040139
Received: 16 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Diversity)
Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/fungicides affect non-target organisms, and these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of S. cerevisiae, which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. Although herbicide application was not recorded, the highest glyphosate-resistant S. cerevisiae were isolated from agricultural sites. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, different yeast species were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity, and at the brewery only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the S. cerevisiae did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH); copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH); copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3669025
MDPI and ACS Style

Barney, J.B.; Winans, M.J.; Blackwood, C.B.; Pupo, A.; Gallagher, J.E. The Yeast Atlas of Appalachia: Species and Phenotypic Diversity of Herbicide Resistance in Wild Yeast. Diversity 2020, 12, 139.

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