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Open AccessArticle

Patterns in Alpha and Beta Phytoplankton Diversity along a Conductivity Gradient in Coastal Mediterranean Lagoons

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Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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EYATH SA, Water Supply Division/Drinking Water Treatment Facility, Nea Ionia, 57008 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Fisheries Department, Dir. of Agricultural Economy & Veterinary Med., Regional District of Xanthi, Region of Eastern Macedonia & Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
4
Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12010038
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 19 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity of Marine Microbes)
Understanding the diversity patterns of phytoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons is clearly important for water management. In this study, we explored alpha and beta diversity patterns in phytoplankton communities across five Mediterranean lagoons hydrologically connected to Vistonikos Gulf. We examined the phytoplankton community composition and biomass on a monthly basis from November 2018 to October 2019. For this, water samples were collected from seven inshore, brackish and coastal waters, sampling sites covering a wide range of conductivity. We found significant spatial and temporal differences in phytoplankton alpha diversity and in phytoplankton biomass metrics explained by the high variation of conductivity. Evenness remained low throughout the study period, reflecting significant dominance of several phytoplankton blooms. Harmful algal blooms of Prorocentrum minimum, Alexandrium sp., Rhizosolenia setigera and Cylindrotheca closterium occurred. The system’s species pool was characterized by relatively high phytoplankton beta diversity (average ~0.7) resulting from high temporal species turnover (90%). Overall, alpha and beta diversity components were indicative of rather heterogeneous phytoplankton communities which were associated with the high differences in conductivity among the sampling sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: brackish; HABs; dinoflagellates; diatoms; cyanobacteria; transitional water bodies brackish; HABs; dinoflagellates; diatoms; cyanobacteria; transitional water bodies
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    Description: Supplementary Table 1: Species list of phytoplankton taxa per sampling site during the study period. Supplementary Table 2: Species number, total phytoplankton biomass and alpha diversity indices per sample. Supplementary Table 3: List of higher contributing phytoplankton species in communities’ dissimilarity determined by SIMPER between site pairs. Supplementary figure 1: Boxplots of phytoplankton C (a), species richness (b), Shannon index (c) and Evenness (d) in the lagoons Lafra, Lafrouda, Lagos (Lag), Palaia Koiti (PK) and Vistonis (Vis1, Vis2, Vis3). Supplementary figure 2: Scatter plots conductivity and the different phytoplankton metrics.
MDPI and ACS Style

Stefanidou, N.; Katsiapi, M.; Tsianis, D.; Demertzioglou, M.; Michaloudi, E.; Moustaka-Gouni, M. Patterns in Alpha and Beta Phytoplankton Diversity along a Conductivity Gradient in Coastal Mediterranean Lagoons. Diversity 2020, 12, 38.

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