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Diversity 2019, 11(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11020028

Lichens and Bromeliads as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Deposition in Ecuador

1
Sección de Ecología y Sistemática, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
2
Maestría en Biología de la Conservación y Ecología Tropical, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
3
Departamento de Química y Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), San Cayetano s/n, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichen Diversity and Biomonitoring)
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Abstract

We evaluated heavy metal deposition in Parmotrema arnoldii and Tillandsia usneoides in response to air pollution in Loja city, Ecuador. We assessed heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, lead and zinc) content in these organisms at nine study sites inside Loja city and three control sites in nearby forests. Concentrations of all studied heavy metals (i.e., cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)) were highest in downtown Loja. Our study confirms that passive monitoring using lichens and/or bromeliads can be an efficient tool to evaluate heavy metal deposition related to urbanization (e.g., vehicle emissions). We recommend these organisms to be used in cost-effective monitoring of air pollution in tropical countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; epiphytes; passive monitoring; vehicle emissions air pollution; epiphytes; passive monitoring; vehicle emissions
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Benítez, Á.; Medina, J.; Vásquez, C.; Loaiza, T.; Luzuriaga, Y.; Calva, J. Lichens and Bromeliads as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Deposition in Ecuador. Diversity 2019, 11, 28.

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