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Open AccessArticle

Marine Heterobranchia (Gastropoda, Mollusca) in Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia—A Follow-Up Diversity Study

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Centre of Molecular Biodiversity, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sam Ratulangi University, 95115 Manado, Indonesia
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Panorama Resort and Diving Centre, POB 1628, 95000 Manado, Indonesia
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Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Sam Ratulangi University, 95115 Manado, Indonesia
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Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
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Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Bioresources, 35394 Giessen, Germany
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Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
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Swansea Ecology Research Team, Department of Biosciences, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fontje Kaligis: deceased.
Diversity 2018, 10(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10040127
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)
Bunaken National Park has been surveyed for a fourth time in 14 years, in an attempt to establish the species composition of heterobranch sea slugs in a baseline study for monitoring programs and protection of this special park. These molluscs are potentially good indicators of the health of an ecosystem, as many are species-specific predators on a huge variety of marine benthic and sessile invertebrates from almost every taxonomic group. Additionally, they are known to contain bio-compounds of significance in the pharmaceutical industry. It is therefore of paramount importance not only to document the species composition from a zoogeographic point of view, but to assist in their protection for the future, both in terms of economics and aesthetics. These four surveys have documented more than 200 species, with an approximate 50% of each collection found only on that survey and not re-collected. Many species new to science have also been documented, highlighting the lack of knowledge in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; Bunaken National Park; Heterobranchia; Indonesia; monitoring; Opisthobranchia; sea slugs; tourism biodiversity; Bunaken National Park; Heterobranchia; Indonesia; monitoring; Opisthobranchia; sea slugs; tourism
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Eisenbarth, J.-H.; Undap, N.; Papu, A.; Schillo, D.; Dialao, J.; Reumschüssel, S.; Kaligis, F.; Bara, R.; Schäberle, T.F.; König, G.M.; Yonow, N.; Wägele, H. Marine Heterobranchia (Gastropoda, Mollusca) in Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia—A Follow-Up Diversity Study. Diversity 2018, 10, 127.

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