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Diversity 2018, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10040114

Sequence Diversity and Identification of Novel Puroindoline and Grain Softness Protein Alleles in Elymus, Agropyron and Related Species

1
Plant Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
2
Computational and Analytical Sciences, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
3
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract

The puroindoline proteins, PINA and PINB, which are encoded by the Pina and Pinb genes located at the Ha locus on chromosome 5D of bread wheat, are considered to be the most important determinants of grain hardness. However, the recent identification of Pinb-2 genes on group 7 chromosomes has stressed the importance of considering the effects of related genes and proteins. Several species related to wheat (two diploid Agropyron spp., four tetraploid Elymus spp. and five hexaploid Elymus and Agropyron spp.) were therefore analyzed to identify novel variation in Pina, Pinb and Pinb-2 genes which could be exploited for the improvement of cultivated wheat. A novel sequence for the Pina gene was detected in Elymus burchan-buddae, Elymus dahuricus subsp. excelsus and Elymus nutans and novel PINB sequences in Elymus burchan-buddae, Elymus dahuricus subsp. excelsus, and Elymus nutans. A novel PINB-2 variant was also detected in Agropyron repens and Elymus repens. The encoded proteins detected all showed changes in the tryptophan-rich domain as well as changes in and/or deletions of basic and hydrophobic residues. In addition, two new AGP sequences were identified in Elymus nutans and Elymus wawawaiensis. The data presented therefore highlight the sequence diversity in this important gene family and the potential to exploit this diversity to modify grain texture and end-use quality in wheat. View Full-Text
Keywords: Elymus species; Puroindoline genes; Pinb-2 genes; novel sequence variants Elymus species; Puroindoline genes; Pinb-2 genes; novel sequence variants
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Wilkinson, M.D.; King, R.; Grimaldi, R. Sequence Diversity and Identification of Novel Puroindoline and Grain Softness Protein Alleles in Elymus, Agropyron and Related Species. Diversity 2018, 10, 114.

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