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Open AccessArticle

Correlated Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Behavioral and Metabolic Traits of a Large Pelagic Fish

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra 2617, Australia
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Limited, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
Institute of Marine Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1149, New Zealand
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Northland Marine Research Centre, Station Road, Ruakaka 0116, New Zealand
Oceanic Fisheries Programme, Pacific Community, CPS, Noumea 98848, New Caledonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 35;
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fishes)
Ocean acidification and warming are co-occurring stressors, yet their effects on early life stages of large pelagic fishes are not well known. Here, we determined the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature at levels projected for the end of the century on activity levels, boldness, and metabolic traits (i.e., oxygen uptake rates) in larval kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a large pelagic fish with a circumglobal distribution. We also examined correlations between these behavioral and physiological traits measured under different treatments. Kingfish were reared from the egg stage to 25 days post-hatch in a full factorial design of ambient and elevated CO2 (~500 µatm and ~1000 µatm) and temperature (21 °C and 25 °C). Activity levels were higher in fish from the elevated temperature treatment compared with fish reared under ambient temperature. However, elevated CO2 did not affect activity, and boldness was not affected by either elevated CO2 or temperature. Both elevated CO2 and temperature resulted in increased resting oxygen uptake rates compared to fish reared under ambient conditions, but neither affected maximum oxygen uptake rates nor aerobic scope. Resting oxygen uptake rates and boldness were negatively correlated under ambient temperature, but positively correlated under elevated temperature. Maximum oxygen uptake rates and boldness were also negatively correlated under ambient temperature. These findings suggest that elevated temperature has a greater impact on behavioral and physiological traits of larval kingfish than elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 exposure did increase resting oxygen uptake rates and interact with temperature in complex ways. Our results provide novel behavioral and physiological data on the responses of the larval stage of a large pelagic fish to ocean acidification and warming conditions, demonstrate correlations between these traits, and suggest that these correlations could influence the direction and pace of adaptation to global climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: physiology; behavior; temperature; CO2; climate change; yellowtail kingfish; Seriola lalandi physiology; behavior; temperature; CO2; climate change; yellowtail kingfish; Seriola lalandi
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    Doi: 10.4225/28/5ae15a2d946b4
MDPI and ACS Style

Laubenstein, T.D.; Rummer, J.L.; Nicol, S.; Parsons, D.M.; Pether, S.M.J.; Pope, S.; Smith, N.; Munday, P.L. Correlated Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Behavioral and Metabolic Traits of a Large Pelagic Fish. Diversity 2018, 10, 35.

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