Insect Species Damage on Ornamental Plants and Saplings of Bartin Province and Its Vicinity in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey
2. Material and Methods
3.1 Harmful insects in Bartın and its vicinity
- – Chrysomela populi L.: Its eggs were found on the campus of Bartın Faculty of Forestry (BFF) on June 4th, 2004, laid on the lower surface of the leaves of Populus nigra. The larvae hatched from these eggs on June 8th, 2004. Two pupas were detected on June 19th, 2004; adults were noted on June 23rd, 2004. In Zonguldak-Çaycuma, the adults, mature larvae, pupae and eggs were observed on 27 July 2005 on leaves of Populus nigra. Çanakçıoğlu and Toper  have observed this insect on Populus sp., grown along the road between Bartın and Safranbolu, on July 4th, 1995.
- – Crepidodera aurata Marsh.: This insect has been seen in Ağdaci Village-Faculty Campus on May 30th, 2004 and in Karaköy district, on Salix babylonica and Salix alba, on July 6th, 2004 (Figure 1). Çanakçıoğlu and Toper  have collected this insect on Populus x euramericana, grown along the road between Bartın and Çaycuma.
- – Plagiodera versicolora Laich.: This species has been observed on Salix cinerea L., in the Karaman Tableland, on June 24th, 2004, and on Salix sp, at 30th km. of Bartın-Zonguldak road, on June 30th, 2004. The adult insects were feeding on the leaves. Toper  has stated that in 1998, this insect was epidemically damaging Salix cinerea L. and Populus tremula, grown in Ardiç, Sökü, Aşağıyayla, Ahmet Usta, Karaman Tableland, Cubulludere, Karakışla, which are districts close to Bartın and Karabük.
- – Pissodes piceae Illig.: The adult insect and its larvae have been found on Abies bornmülleriana, at Ahmet Usta Gorge on July 31st, 2004. Toper Kaygın  has found adult insects on A. bornmuelleriana, in Ahmet Usta-Kayzerbaşı district (970 m) on June 19th, 1997; its young larvae in Ovacuma-Karandere (860 m) district, on July 9th, 1997; and adults and larvae at Ahmet Usta Geon (935 m) on July 31st, 1997 and in Ahmet Usta-Kayzerbaşı (975 m) on August 6th, 1997.
- – Cetonia aurata L. has been found on the stem of Rosa sp., close to the ground level, on the campus of BFF on June 4th, 2004. Lodos et al.  have recorded this insect in Bartın, Central province.
- – Melolontha melolontha L. has been observed on April 25th, 2004 on the branches of Malus sp. which were planted in the garden of Boğaziçi Hotel and its adults were found on stems of Cupressus sempervirens, in the same garden.
- – Oxythrea cinctella (Schaum): Lodos et al.  have recorded this insect in Bartın, Central province. This species has been observed while feeding on Scabiosa sp. and Anthemis cretica pollens, along the Bosphorus Road on June 8th, 2005.
- – Polyphylla fullo L.: Lodos et al.  have recorded this insect in Bartın-Ulus and Zonguldak Central province. This species have been found on the ground at Karaköy district on July 8th, 2004 and on Morus alba “pendula” in the garden of the Halil Yaz Facility on May 26th, 2004 and July 18th, 2004.
- – Forficula auricularia L. has been collected on Fragaria vesca in the garden of a house built on Kanlıırmak Street on April 22nd, 2004 and also on Rosa sp. planted in the garden of Official Directorate of Agriculture.
- – Graphosoma italicum L.: Five or six of these species were observed on flowers of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander); these insects were noticed on June 19th, 2004 in the garden of a house situated in the city centre.
- – Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw.: During the field trip, many white flies were observed on Aucuba japonica in Yalı district of Gazhane Park, on April 24th, 2004. They flew off when the branches were disturbed. The formation of a sooty mould (fumajin) has been observed on the leaves of the plant, due to the heavy production of honey dew.
- – Aphis fabae Scop.: It has been found on saplings of Philadelphus sp. (Hydrangeaceae) in Devrek Nursery on May 9th, 2005.
- – Aphis farinosa J. F. Gmelin: It has been collected on Salix alba, on the campus of the Bartın Faculty of Forestry on May 10th, 2005.
- – Aphis gossypii Glov.: Adult insects and nymphs have been observed on saplings of Hibiscus mutabilis in Devrek Nursery on May 9th, 2005. In addition to this record, this insect has been also encountered on May 11th, 2005 on Hibiscus syriacus cv. “blue bird”, planted in the garden of the Facility Establishment of the Official Municipality of Bartın.
- – Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe: Found on Nerium oleander in the garden of the Facility Establishment of the Official Municipality of Bartın, on May 11th, 2005.
- – Macrosiphum rosae L.: During the field trips, it has been found on roses in Gazhane Park, on April 27th, 2005 and in the garden of the Facility Establishment of the Official Municipality of Bartın and in the garden of the Vocational School for Girls on March 2nd, 2005.
- – Myzus persicae Sulz.: During the field trip, it has been found on newly emerging shoots and on the underside of the leaves of Cyclamen sp. on January 6th, 2005, in the garden of a house situated in Kırtepe district. The adults and many nymphs have been also collected on the branches, shoots and flowers of Freesia (Hybrid), in the greenhouse of the Bartın Faculty of Forestry on April 4th, 2005 (Figure 2).
- – Cercopis vulnerata Rossi: It has been found on honeysuckle on the campus of the Bartın Faculty of Forestry on May 03rd, 2004 and detected while resting on leaves of Cotoneaster horizontalis on April 24th, 2004, in Gazhane Park.
- – Philaenus supumarius L.: Observed on the faculty campus on April 25th, 2004 on herbaceous flowering plants bearing a foamy secretion,. It has been found as an adult insect on June 14th, 2004 and on May 17th, 2005. Foamy secretions have been found extensively on the shoots, branches and leaves of Salix alba and Salix sp.
- Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch: During the field trips, it has been found on the Populus nigra, on the faculty campus on May 16th, 2005. The gall has been also detected on the leaves.
- – Cicadelle viridis L.: It has been observed on the undersurface of Populus sp. leaves and on wild grasses near the roses, in Ağdacı Village, Faculty Campus, on May 30th, 2004.
- – Coccus hesperidum L.: It has been found in the BFF on April 29th, 2004 and on Dieffenbachia amoena seguine ‘Tropic Snow’ (Dieffenbachia) in one of the offices of the faculty building on February 9th, 2005. Due to the high population density, it has been observed that the vivid green colour of these plants’ leaves has gradually faded away and the plant died as no protection has been provided. In our following observations, it has been found that these insects have also settled on the leaves of Spathiphyllum plant, which was cultivated next to Dieffenbachia and covered the upper surface of its leaf with their secretion (Figures 3 a and b).
- – Coccus longulus (Dauglas): It has been observed on Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily), in the employee residence of the Bartın Faculty of Forestry on August 26th, 2004. They generally settled on the leaves of the plant however, they were also observed on feeding on the flowers and peduncles.
- – Leucaspis pusilla Löv.: During the field trip, these were observed on Pinus pinaster, on the campus of BFF on May 23rd, 2005 (Figure 4).
- – Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targ-Toz: They have been found during the field trips on Morus alba “pendula”, in the garden of the Directorate of Agriculture. These insects collectively settled on the leaf sheaths (Figure 5).
- – Unaspis euonymi Comst: During the field trip, these insects have been observed in number on the leaves of shoots of Ficus starlight, planted in the one of the offices of the faculty building on February 3rd, 2005. They also settled on the upper and bottom surfaces of the leaves, around the major and side veins, on the edge of the leaves and petiole. The cochineals were 1.5 mm high and tawny coloured. The cochineals, which were found on Euonymus latifolius ve Euonymus japonicus cv. “Aureopictum” cultivated in the garden of Kemik Housing Estate on September 20th, 2004 and at Cumhuriyet Square on March 17th, 2005, were settled commonly on the shoots, branches and leaves of the cherry laurel. The nymphs and nymphal skins were observed to be scattered on the major and side veins and almost all over the leaf surface (Figure 6).
- – Eulachnus rileyi Willms.: This species were collected on the saplings of Pinus pinea, planted behind the bust of Atatürk in the campus of BFF on May 4th, 2005 and behind the BFF Library on June 1st, 2005. As a result of sucking of the insects, the leaf points were blanched, and even some parts of the leaf were desiccated. Resin leaks were observed on some spots, as a result of the insect's sucking activity.
- – Have been observed on samples of stinging nettles, collected from a garden of a house in Kırtepe district on September 20th, 2005 however the species couldn’t be identified.
- – Libythea celtis Laich.: Its larvae have been found on Alnus glutinosa ssp. Glutinosa, grown next to the Ataköy Facilities on the Bartın to Mengen road on May 9th, 2005. Of the two larvae collected as samples, one of them turned into a pupa on May 11th, 2005, while the other changed to pupal stage on May 16th, 2005 and both became adults on May 24th, 2005.
- – Lymantria dispar L.: Çanakçıoğlu and Toper  have reported this insect on Populus x euramericana (02.06.1995) in Bartın-Amasra. Özkazanç  has observed L. dispar on oaks in Bartın and Karabük in 1996. During the field trips, three larvae of this insect have been identified towards the end of May 2004 on weeds near the willow trees planted in the Bartın Faculty of Forestry campus.
- – Saturnia pavonia L.: The adult insect has been found on weeds during the field trips carried out on the campus of the Bartın Faculty of Forestry on 22 April 2004.
- – Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.: The larvae in bladders have been observed on the branches of Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra on March 7th, 2004, in the garden of the Official Directorate of Forestry Chief Office, and in the gardens of Arıt, Dumanlı, Yenihan and Kozcağız Forestry Management Offices.
- – Gryllus desertus Pal.: Çanakçıoğlu and Toper  have recorded this insect on Populus x euramericana in Bartın-Karaköy, in 1995. They have been found on annual herbaceous plants in the garden of the employee residence of BFF on 03 July 2005.
- – Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L.: Çanakçioğlu and Toper  have observed this insect in Bartın-Karaköy on 06 July 1995. During the field trips, they were observed while picking up the ground among the strawberries in Gaffar Village. Their nymphs were on roots of Tulipa sp. and Ranunculus sp., in Gazhane Park on April 24th, 2005. This insect was also observed among weeds in Hendekyanı district, on April 21st, 2005 and was identified near a field, situated on the road of Ağdacı Village, Bartın Faculty of Forestry, on May 18th, 2005.
3.2 Host plants – Insect species
- Toper, A. Insects damage on poplar trees in Bartın area, M.Sc. Thesis; Zonguldak Karaelmas University, July 1995.
- Lodos, N; Önder, F; Pehlivan, E; Atalay, R; Erkin, E; Karsavuran, Y; Tezcan, S; Aksoy, S. Faunistic Studies on Scarabaeoidea (Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae, Dynastidae, Geotrupidae, Glaphyridae, Hybosoridae, Melolonthidae, Ochodaeidae, Rutelidae, - Scarabaeidae) (Coleoptera) of Western Black Sea, Central Anatolia and Mediterranean Regions of Turkey; Ege University Basımevi, Bornova: İzmir, Turkey.
- Arslan, Y. Insect species damaging on elm, common alder, maple and willow in Bartın province, M.Sc. Thesis; Zonguldak Karaelmas University, August 1998.
- Özkazanç, NK. Insects damage on oak, beech, and hornbeam trees in Bartın area forests, M.Sc. Thesis; Zonguldak Karaelmas University, August 1998.
- Özbek, H; Güçlü, Ş; Hayat, R; Yıldırım, E. Pests of vineyards, orchards and ornamental plants; Atatürk University Publications No. 792; Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection, Atatürk University: Erzurum, Turkey, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Toros, S. Harmful Insects of Parks and Ornamental Plants, 3rd Ed. ed; Agricultural Research Faculty, Ankara University: Ankara, Turkey, 1996; Publication No: 1450. [Google Scholar]
- Toper, A. Plant Protection; Bartın Forest Research Faculty; Zonguldak Karaelmas University: Bartın, Turkey, 2001; Publication No. 18. [Google Scholar]
- Ecevit, O; Tuncer, C; Hatat, G. Plant Protection, 4th Ed ed; Ondokuz Mayis University: Samsun, Turkey, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Anon. Data of Bartın Meteorology Directorate, 2006.
- Hille Ris Lambers, D. On Mounting Aphids and Other Soft-skinned Insects. Entomologische Zeitschr 1950, 13, 55–58. [Google Scholar]
- Düzgüneş, Z. Collecting, Preserving and Microscopic Preparation of Small Arthropods; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, General Directorate of Protection and Control: Ankara, Turkey, 1980. [Google Scholar]
- Çanakçıoğlu, H. Collecting-Preparation-Preserving and Identification of Insects; Forest Research Faculty, Istanbul University: Istanbul, Turkey, 1993; Publication No. 3768. [Google Scholar]
- Çanakçıoğlu, H; Mol, T. Forest Entomology, Harmful and Useful Insects; Forest Research Faculty, Istanbul University: Istanbul, Turkey, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Demirsoy, A. Entomology (Main Rules of Life, Invertebrata-Insects); Biology Department, Life Science Faculty, Hacettepe University: Ankara, Turkey, 1992; Volume 2, Part 2. [Google Scholar]
- Gür, S. Investigations on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westw) (Hom Aleyrodidae); Damaging on Raising with Commercial Purposes Ornamental Plants in Izmir and Surrounding Areas; Ege University: Izmir, Turkey, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Özdemir, I; Toros, S. Harmful Aphidoidea (Homoptera) Species on Seasonal Ornamental Plants in Parks in Ankara. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 1997, 21, 283–298. [Google Scholar]
- Toros, S. Rose (Rosa spp) Aphids; Agricultural Research Faculty, Ankara University: Ankara, Turkey, 1992; Volume 42, Chapters 1–4. [Google Scholar]
- Yaşar, B. Investigations on Diaspididae and Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea) Families Damaging on Ornamental Plants in İzmir, Ph.D. Thesis; Ege University, 1990.
- Kenber, LA. Ornamental and House Plants, 3rd ed; Ed.; Inkilap Publisher: Kayseri, Turkey1995. [Google Scholar]
- Burnie, G; Forrester, S; Greig, D; Guest, S; Harmony, M; Hobley, S; Jackson, G; Lavarack, P; Ledgett, M; McDonald, R; Macoboy, S; Molyneux, B; Moodie, D; Moore, J; Newman, D; North, T; Pienaar, K; Purdy, G; Silk, J; Ryan, S; Schien, G. Botanica; Könemann: Hagen, Germany, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Yılmaz, H. Biotopes Mapping in Bartın Province and Near Vicinity; Life Sciences Institute, Istanbul University: Istanbul, Turkey, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Veliağagil, HT. Houseplants; Yedinci Publisher: Altinova/Yalova, Turkey, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Tekin, E. The Most Beautiful Wild Flowers of Turkey; Turkish Isbank Culture Publications, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Richards, OW; Davies, RG. IMMS’ General Textbook of Entomolgy, 10th Ed. ed; Chapman & Hall: London, U.K., 1994; Volume 2: Classification and Biology. [Google Scholar]
- Çanakçıoğlu, H; Toper, A. Insects of Poplar Trees in Bartın Area; Forest Research Faculty, Istanbul University: Istanbul, Turkey, 1999; Series A, 49–2. [Google Scholar]
- Toper Kaygın, A; Yıldız, Y. A Threatening Species for Willows and Poplars in Bartın: Crepidodera aurata (Marsh.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Proceedings of the Second Plant Protection Congress of Turkey, Isparta; 2007; p. 238. [Google Scholar]
- Toper, A. Observations concerned biology of Plagiodera versicolora (Laich.) (Col., Chrysomelidae) and Damage on Salix cinerea L. in Bartın and Karabük. Proc. 3rd International Symposium on New and Nontraditional Plants and Prospects of Their Utilization, Pushino: Moscow, Russia, 1999; pp. 231–233. [Google Scholar]
- Toper, A. Some Harmful Insect Species Determined on Abies bornmülleriana Mattf. and Their Importance in the Western Blacksea Region. Gazi Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 2003, 3, 153–164. [Google Scholar]
|Name of Species||Host Plants||Locality||Collected time|
|Libythea celtis||Celtis australis, Alnus glutinosa ssp. glutinosa||Mengen, Ataköy Facilities||May 9th, 2005|
|Chrysomela populi||Populus nigra||Bartın Faculty of Forestry (BFF)||June 4th, 2004|
|Crepidodera aurata||Salix babylonica, Salix alba||Ağdacı Village, BFF||May 30th, 2004|
|Karaköy||July 6th, 2004|
|Plagiodera||Salix cinerea||Karaman Tableland||June 24th, 2004|
|versicolora||Salix sp.||Bartın-Zonguldak road||June 30th, 2004|
|Pissodes piceae||Abies bornmülleriana||Ahmet Usta Gorge||July 31st, 2004|
|Graphosoma italicum||Coriandrum sativum||Bartın city centre||June 19th, 2004|
|Aphis fabae||Philadelphus sp.||Devrek Nursery||May 9th, 2005|
|Aphis farinosa||Salix alba||Bartın city centre||June 19th, 2004|
|Aphis nerii||Nerium oleander||Facility Establishment of the Official Municipality of Bartın||May 11th, 2005|
|Aphis gossypii||Hibiscus mutabilis, H. syriacus||Devrek Nursery||May 9th, 2005|
|cv. “blue bird”||Bartın city centre||May 11th, 2005|
|Myzus persicae||Cyclamen sp., Freesia sp.||Bartın city centre||January 6th,2005|
|BFF||April 4th, 2005|
|Macrosiphum rosae||Rosa sp.||Gazhane Park||April 27th, 2005|
|Chaitophorus leucomelas||Populus nigra||BFF||May 16th, 2005|
|Leucaspis pusilla||Pinus pinaster||BFF||May 23rd, 2005|
|Unaspis euonymi||Euonymus latifolius, E. japonicus cv. “Aureopictum”, Ficus starlight||BFF||Febr. 3rd, 2005|
|Bartın city centre||Sept. 20th, 2004|
|March 17th, 2005|
|Eulachnus rileyi||Pinus pinea||BFF||May 4th, 2005|
|June 1st, 2005|
|Thaumetopoea pityocampa||Pinus brutia, Pinus nigra||Arıt, Dumanlı, Yenihan and Kozcağız||March 7th, 2004|
|Cetonia aurata||Rosa sp.||BFF||June 4th, 2004|
|Melolontha||Malus sp., Cupressus||Bartın city centre||April 25th, 2004|
|Oxythyrea cinctella||Scabiosa sp., Anthemis cretica||Bosphorus Road||June 8th, 2005|
|Polyphylla fullo||Morus alba “pendula”||Karaköy||July 8th, 2004|
|Bartın city centre||May 26th, 2004 and July 18th, 2004|
|Forficula auricularia||Fragaria vesca, Rosa sp.||Bartın city centre||April 22nd, 2004|
|Trialeurodes vaporariorum||Aucuba japonica||Bartın city centre||April 24th, 2004|
|Cercopis vulnerata||Lonicera sp., Cotoneaster horizontalis,||BFF||May 03rd, 2004|
|Bartın city centre||April 24th, 2004|
|Philaenus supumarius||Salix sp.||BFF||April 25th, 2004|
|June 14th, 2004|
|May 17th, 2005|
|Cicadelle viridis||Populus sp.||Ağdacı Village||May 30th, 2004|
|Coccus hesperidum||Dieffenbachia amoena seguine||BFF||April 29th, 2004|
|‘Tropic Snow’||Febr. 9th, 2005|
|Coccus longulus||Spathiphyllum sp.||BFF||August 26th, 2004|
|Pseudaulacaspis pentagona||Morus alba “pendula”||Bartın central province||April 29th, 2004|
|Pseudococcidae||Urtica dioica||Bartın central province||Sept. 20th 2004|
|Lymantria dispar||Salix sp.||BFF||May 30th 2004|
|Saturnia pavonia||Salix sp.||BFF||April 22th, 2004|
|Gryllus desertus||weed||BFF||July 03rd 2005|
|Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa||Fragaria vesca, Ranunculus sp., Tulipa sp.||Gaffar Village||April 24th, 2005|
|Gazhane Park||April 21st, 2005|
|Bartın central province||May 18th, 2005|
Share and Cite
Kaygin, A.T.; Sönmezyildiz, H.; Ulgentürk, S.; Ozdemir, I. Insect Species Damage on Ornamental Plants and Saplings of Bartin Province and Its Vicinity in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 526-541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms9040526
Kaygin AT, Sönmezyildiz H, Ulgentürk S, Ozdemir I. Insect Species Damage on Ornamental Plants and Saplings of Bartin Province and Its Vicinity in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(4):526-541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms9040526Chicago/Turabian Style
Kaygin, Azize Toper, Hilmi Sönmezyildiz, Selma Ulgentürk, and Işıl Ozdemir. 2008. "Insect Species Damage on Ornamental Plants and Saplings of Bartin Province and Its Vicinity in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 9, no. 4: 526-541. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms9040526