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Article

The Uniform Distribution of Hydroxyapatite in a Polyurethane Foam-Based Scaffold (PU/HAp) to Enhance Bone Repair in a Calvarial Defect Model

1
School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
2
Orthopaedic Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
3
Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5
School of Dentistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
6
Department of Orthopedics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
7
Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 80145, Taiwan
8
Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan
9
Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
10
Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106216, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(12), 6440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25126440
Submission received: 29 April 2024 / Revised: 3 June 2024 / Accepted: 5 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)

Abstract

Polyurethane (PU) is a promising material for addressing challenges in bone grafting. This study was designed to enhance the bone grafting capabilities of PU by integrating hydroxyapatite (HAp), which is known for its osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential. Moreover, a uniform distribution of HAp in the porous structure of PU increased the effectiveness of bone grafts. PEG/APTES-modified scaffolds were prepared through self-foaming reactions. A uniform pore structure was generated during the spontaneous foaming reaction, and HAp was uniformly distributed in the PU structure (PU15HAp and PU30HAp) during foaming. Compared with the PU scaffolds, the HAp-modified PU scaffolds exhibited significantly greater protein absorption. Importantly, the effect of the HAp-modified PU scaffold on bone repair was tested in a rat calvarial defect model. The microstructure of the newly formed bone was analyzed with microcomputed tomography (μ-CT). Bone regeneration at the defect site was significantly greater in the HAp-modified PU scaffold group than in the PU group. This innovative HAp-modified PU scaffold improves current bone graft materials, providing a promising avenue for improved bone regeneration.
Keywords: polyurethane; hydroxyapatite; bone grafting; bone regeneration polyurethane; hydroxyapatite; bone grafting; bone regeneration

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.-F.; Chou, Y.-S.; Lee, T.-M.; Fu, Y.-C.; Ou, S.-F.; Chen, S.-H.; Lee, T.-C.; Wang, Y.-H. The Uniform Distribution of Hydroxyapatite in a Polyurethane Foam-Based Scaffold (PU/HAp) to Enhance Bone Repair in a Calvarial Defect Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25, 6440. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25126440

AMA Style

Chen C-F, Chou Y-S, Lee T-M, Fu Y-C, Ou S-F, Chen S-H, Lee T-C, Wang Y-H. The Uniform Distribution of Hydroxyapatite in a Polyurethane Foam-Based Scaffold (PU/HAp) to Enhance Bone Repair in a Calvarial Defect Model. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2024; 25(12):6440. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25126440

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Chiu-Fang, Ya-Shuan Chou, Tzer-Min Lee, Yin-Chih Fu, Shih-Fu Ou, Szu-Hsien Chen, Tien-Ching Lee, and Yan-Hsiung Wang. 2024. "The Uniform Distribution of Hydroxyapatite in a Polyurethane Foam-Based Scaffold (PU/HAp) to Enhance Bone Repair in a Calvarial Defect Model" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 25, no. 12: 6440. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25126440

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