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Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Association between Endometriosis and Ectopic Pregnancy

A Systematic Review of Atypical Endometriosis-Associated Biomarkers

Gynecology/Obstetrics Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Kanako Hayashi and Antonio Simone Laganà
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4425;
Received: 16 March 2022 / Revised: 4 April 2022 / Accepted: 11 April 2022 / Published: 17 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Advances in Endometriosis Research)
Ovarian endometriosis may increase the risk of malignancy. Several studies have suggested atypical endometriosis as the direct precursor of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer. We performed an advanced, systematic search of the online medical databases PubMed and Medline. The search revealed n = 40 studies eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Of these, n = 39 were finally included. The results from included studies are characterized by high heterogeneity, but some consistency has been found for altered expression in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway, ARID1a, estrogen and progesterone receptors, transcriptional, nuclear, and growth factors in atypical endometriosis. Although many targets have been proposed as biomarkers for the presence of atypical endometriosis, none of them has such strong evidence to justify their systematic use in clinical practice, and they all need expensive molecular analyses. Further well-designed studies are needed to validate the evidence on available biomarkers and to investigate novel serum markers for atypical endometriosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: endometriosis; atypical; atypical endometriosis; marker; biomarker; atypia endometriosis; atypical; atypical endometriosis; marker; biomarker; atypia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bartiromo, L.; Schimberni, M.; Villanacci, R.; Mangili, G.; Ferrari, S.; Ottolina, J.; Salmeri, N.; Dolci, C.; Tandoi, I.; Candiani, M. A Systematic Review of Atypical Endometriosis-Associated Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 4425.

AMA Style

Bartiromo L, Schimberni M, Villanacci R, Mangili G, Ferrari S, Ottolina J, Salmeri N, Dolci C, Tandoi I, Candiani M. A Systematic Review of Atypical Endometriosis-Associated Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(8):4425.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bartiromo, Ludovica, Matteo Schimberni, Roberta Villanacci, Giorgia Mangili, Stefano Ferrari, Jessica Ottolina, Noemi Salmeri, Carolina Dolci, Iacopo Tandoi, and Massimo Candiani. 2022. "A Systematic Review of Atypical Endometriosis-Associated Biomarkers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 8: 4425.

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