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Review

The Signaling Pathway of TNF Receptors: Linking Animal Models of Renal Disease to Human CKD

by 1,2, 3,4,5, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Associate Laboratory i4HB-Institute for Health and Bioeconomy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
UCIBIO—Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
3
Institute of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics & Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
5
Clinical Academic Center of Coimbra (CACC), 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Huwiler
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063284
Received: 28 February 2022 / Revised: 15 March 2022 / Accepted: 16 March 2022 / Published: 18 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Kidney Disease: Underlying Molecular Mechanisms)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a global public health problem. Despite the current advances in medicine, CKD-associated morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Several studies have highlighted the contribution of inflammation and inflammatory mediators to the development and/or progression of CKD, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related biomarkers. The inflammation pathway driven by TNF-α, through TNF receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 2 (TNFR2), involves important mediators in the pathogenesis of CKD. Circulating levels of TNFRs were associated with changes in other biomarkers of kidney function and injury, and were described as predictors of disease progression, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality in several cohorts of patients. Experimental studies describe the possible downstream signaling pathways induced upon TNFR activation and the resulting biological responses. This review will focus on the available data on TNFR1 and TNFR2, and illustrates their contributions to the pathophysiology of kidney diseases, their cellular and molecular roles, as well as their potential as CKD biomarkers. The emerging evidence shows that TNF receptors could act as biomarkers of renal damage and as mediators of the disease. Furthermore, it has been suggested that these biomarkers could significantly improve the discrimination of clinical CKD prognostic models. View Full-Text
Keywords: CKD; inflammation; TNF-alpha; TNFR; biomarkers CKD; inflammation; TNF-alpha; TNFR; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lousa, I.; Reis, F.; Santos-Silva, A.; Belo, L. The Signaling Pathway of TNF Receptors: Linking Animal Models of Renal Disease to Human CKD. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063284

AMA Style

Lousa I, Reis F, Santos-Silva A, Belo L. The Signaling Pathway of TNF Receptors: Linking Animal Models of Renal Disease to Human CKD. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(6):3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lousa, Irina, Flávio Reis, Alice Santos-Silva, and Luís Belo. 2022. "The Signaling Pathway of TNF Receptors: Linking Animal Models of Renal Disease to Human CKD" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 6: 3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063284

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