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Review

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 Infections—Unexpected Similarities of Pathogenesis and What to Expect from Co-Infection

1
Almazov National Medical Research Centre, 197341 St. Petersburg, Russia
2
Institute of Experimental Medicine, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Laboratory of the Mosaic of Autoimmunity, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
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St. Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, 194064 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Children’s Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, 197022 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
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Institute of Immunology, 115478 Moscow, Russia
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V.M. Bekhterev National Research Medical Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, 192019 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Faculty of Medicine, St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, 194100 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Institut d’Investigació Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, 08029 Barcelona, Spain
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Genetics and Microbiology Departament, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Evgenii Gusev
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042235
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 7 February 2022 / Accepted: 14 February 2022 / Published: 17 February 2022
Tuberculosis is still an important medical and social problem. In recent years, great strides have been made in the fight against M. tuberculosis, especially in the Russian Federation. However, the emergence of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has led to the long-term isolation of the population on the one hand and to the relevance of using personal protective equipment on the other. Our knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation and tissue destruction is rapidly expanding, while our understanding of the pathology of human pulmonary tuberculosis gained through more the 100 years of research is still limited. This paper reviews the main molecular and cellular differences and similarities caused by M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 infections, as well as their critical immunological and pathomorphological features. Immune suppression caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may result in certain difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Furthermore, long-term lymphopenia, hyperinflammation, lung tissue injury and imbalance in CD4+ T cell subsets associated with COVID-19 could propagate M. tuberculosis infection and disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; M. tuberculosis infection; Th cell subsets tuberculosis; SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; M. tuberculosis infection; Th cell subsets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starshinova, A.A.; Kudryavtsev, I.; Malkova, A.; Zinchenko, U.; Karev, V.; Kudlay, D.; Glushkova, A.; Starshinova, A.Y.; Dominguez, J.; Villar-Hernández, R.; Dovgalyk, I.; Yablonskiy, P. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 Infections—Unexpected Similarities of Pathogenesis and What to Expect from Co-Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042235

AMA Style

Starshinova AA, Kudryavtsev I, Malkova A, Zinchenko U, Karev V, Kudlay D, Glushkova A, Starshinova AY, Dominguez J, Villar-Hernández R, Dovgalyk I, Yablonskiy P. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 Infections—Unexpected Similarities of Pathogenesis and What to Expect from Co-Infection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(4):2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starshinova, Anna A., Igor Kudryavtsev, Anna Malkova, Ulia Zinchenko, Vadim Karev, Dmitry Kudlay, Angela Glushkova, Anastasiya Y. Starshinova, Jose Dominguez, Raquel Villar-Hernández, Irina Dovgalyk, and Piotr Yablonskiy. 2022. "Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 Infections—Unexpected Similarities of Pathogenesis and What to Expect from Co-Infection" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 4: 2235. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042235

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