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Article

What Worth the Garlic Peel

French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990, Israel
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Academic Editor: Rosaria Acquaviva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042126
Received: 11 January 2022 / Revised: 10 February 2022 / Accepted: 11 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Plants have two types of reproduction: sexual, resulting in embryo production, and asexual, resulting in vegetative bodies commonly derived from stems and roots (e.g., bulb, tuber). Dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs, such as seed coat and pericarp) are emerging as central components of the dispersal unit acting to nurture the embryo and ensure its survival in the habitat. Here we wanted to investigate the properties of dead organs enclosing plant asexual reproductive bodies, focusing on the garlic (Allium sativum) bulb. We investigated the biochemical and biological properties of the outer peel enclosing the bulb and the inner peel enclosing the clove using various methodologies, including bioassays, proteomics, and metabolomics. The garlic peels differentially affected germination and post-germination growth, with the outer peel demonstrating a strong negative effect on seed germination of Sinapis alba and on post-germination growth of Brassica juncea. Proteome analysis showed that dead garlic peels possess 67 proteins, including chitinases and proteases, which retained their enzymatic activity. Among primary metabolites identified in garlic peels, the outer peel accumulated multiple sugars, including rhamnose, mannitol, sorbitol, and trehalose, as well as the modified amino acid 5-hydroxylysine, known as a major component of collagen, at a higher level compared to the clove and the inner peel. Growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was promoted by garlic peel extracts but inhibited by clove extract. All extracts strongly inhibited spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. Thus, the garlic peels not only provide physical protection to vegetative offspring but also appear to function as a refined arsenal of proteins and metabolites for enhancing growth and development, combating potential pathogens, and conferring tolerance to abiotic stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asexual reproduction; bulb; Allium sativum (garlic); dead organs enclosing reproductive body; garlic peels; proteome; primary metabolites; nucleases; chitinases; proteases; microbial growth; allelochemicals Asexual reproduction; bulb; Allium sativum (garlic); dead organs enclosing reproductive body; garlic peels; proteome; primary metabolites; nucleases; chitinases; proteases; microbial growth; allelochemicals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singiri, J.R.; Swetha, B.; Ben-Natan, A.; Grafi, G. What Worth the Garlic Peel. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042126

AMA Style

Singiri JR, Swetha B, Ben-Natan A, Grafi G. What Worth the Garlic Peel. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(4):2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singiri, Jeevan R., Bupur Swetha, Arava Ben-Natan, and Gideon Grafi. 2022. "What Worth the Garlic Peel" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 4: 2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042126

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