Next Article in Journal
Magnesium Modified β-Tricalcium Phosphate Induces Cell Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro and Bone Regeneration In Vivo
Next Article in Special Issue
Self-Assembled Particles Combining SARS-CoV-2 RBD Protein and RBD DNA Vaccine Induce Synergistic Enhancement of the Humoral Response in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
The Proteolysis of ECM in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Previous Article in Special Issue
Could Lower Testosterone in Older Men Explain Higher COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortalities?
Review

SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of COVID-19

1
Laboratory of Immunology of Inflammation, Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 620049 Ekaterinburg, Russia
2
Russian–Chinese Education and Research Center of System Pathology, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Atsushi Matsuzawa and Mauro Vaccarezza
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031716
Received: 21 December 2021 / Revised: 31 January 2022 / Accepted: 1 February 2022 / Published: 2 February 2022
The review aims to consolidate research findings on the molecular mechanisms and virulence and pathogenicity characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and their relevance to four typical stages in the development of acute viral infection. These four stages are invasion; primary blockade of antiviral innate immunity; engagement of the virus’s protection mechanisms against the factors of adaptive immunity; and acute, long-term complications of COVID-19. The invasion stage entails the recognition of the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 target cell receptors, namely, the main receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2), its coreceptors, and potential alternative receptors. The presence of a diverse repertoire of receptors allows SARS-CoV-2 to infect various types of cells, including those not expressing ACE2. During the second stage, the majority of the polyfunctional structural, non-structural, and extra proteins SARS-CoV-2 synthesizes in infected cells are involved in the primary blockage of antiviral innate immunity. A high degree of redundancy and systemic action characterizing these pathogenic factors allows SARS-CoV-2 to overcome antiviral mechanisms at the initial stages of invasion. The third stage includes passive and active protection of the virus from factors of adaptive immunity, overcoming of the barrier function at the focus of inflammation, and generalization of SARS-CoV-2 in the body. The fourth stage is associated with the deployment of variants of acute and long-term complications of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2’s ability to induce autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathways of tissue invasion and development of both immunosuppressive and hyperergic mechanisms of systemic inflammation is critical at this stage of infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive immunity; autoimmunity; cellular stress; cytokines; interferons; post-COVID-19 syndrome; receptors; SARS-CoV-2; superantigens; systemic inflammation adaptive immunity; autoimmunity; cellular stress; cytokines; interferons; post-COVID-19 syndrome; receptors; SARS-CoV-2; superantigens; systemic inflammation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gusev, E.; Sarapultsev, A.; Solomatina, L.; Chereshnev, V. SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031716

AMA Style

Gusev E, Sarapultsev A, Solomatina L, Chereshnev V. SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031716

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gusev, Evgenii, Alexey Sarapultsev, Liliya Solomatina, and Valeriy Chereshnev. 2022. "SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of COVID-19" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031716

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop