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Article

Photodynamic Activity of Protoporphyrin IX-Immobilized Cellulose Monolith for Nerve Tissue Regeneration

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea
2
Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea
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Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 39177, Korea
4
Gastric Cancer Center, Kyoungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu 41404, Korea
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Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan
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School of Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kunn Hadinoto Ong and Yanxia Zhu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031035
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 14 January 2022 / Published: 18 January 2022
The development of nerve conduits with a three-dimensional porous structure has attracted great attention as they closely mimic the major features of the natural extracellular matrix of the nerve tissue. As low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules to promote cell proliferation and growth, this study aimed to fabricate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-immobilized cellulose (CEPP) monoliths as a means to both guide and stimulate nerve regeneration. CEPP monoliths can be fabricated via a simple thermally induced phase separation method and surface modification. The improved nerve tissue regeneration of CEPP monoliths was achieved by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The resulting CEPP monoliths exhibited interconnected microporous structures and uniform morphology. The results of in vitro bioactivity assays demonstrated that the CEPP monoliths with under 0.54 ± 0.07 μmol/g PpIX exhibited enhanced photodynamic activity on Schwann cells via the generation of low levels of ROS. This photodynamic activation of the CEPP monoliths is a cell-safe process to stimulate cell proliferation without cytotoxic side effects. In addition, the protein expression of phospho-ERK increased considerably after the laser irradiation on the CEPP monoliths with low content of PpIX. Therefore, the CEPP monoliths have a potential application in nerve tissue regeneration as new nerve conduits. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic activity; reactive oxygen species; cellulose monolith; nerve regeneration; thermally induced phase separation photodynamic activity; reactive oxygen species; cellulose monolith; nerve regeneration; thermally induced phase separation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Kwon, O.H.; Kwon, O.K.; Uyama, H.; Kim, Y.-J. Photodynamic Activity of Protoporphyrin IX-Immobilized Cellulose Monolith for Nerve Tissue Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031035

AMA Style

Lee JH, Kim KH, Kwon OH, Kwon OK, Uyama H, Kim Y-J. Photodynamic Activity of Protoporphyrin IX-Immobilized Cellulose Monolith for Nerve Tissue Regeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(3):1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Ji H., Ki H. Kim, Oh H. Kwon, Oh K. Kwon, Hiroshi Uyama, and Young-Jin Kim. 2022. "Photodynamic Activity of Protoporphyrin IX-Immobilized Cellulose Monolith for Nerve Tissue Regeneration" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 3: 1035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031035

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