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Review

Biomolecules under Pressure: Phase Diagrams, Volume Changes, and High Pressure Spectroscopic Techniques

Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology, Semmelweis University, Tűzoltó u. 37-47, 1094 Budapest, Hungary
Academic Editor: Parkson Lee-Gau Chong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105761
Received: 29 April 2022 / Revised: 18 May 2022 / Accepted: 19 May 2022 / Published: 20 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Under Extreme Conditions: A Molecular Science View)
Pressure is an equally important thermodynamical parameter as temperature. However, its importance is often overlooked in the biophysical and biochemical investigations of biomolecules and biological systems. This review focuses on the application of high pressure (>100 MPa = 1 kbar) in biology. Studies of high pressure can give insight into the volumetric aspects of various biological systems; this information cannot be obtained otherwise. High-pressure treatment is a potentially useful alternative method to heat-treatment in food science. Elevated pressure (up to 120 MPa) is present in the deep sea, which is a considerable part of the biosphere. From a basic scientific point of view, the application of the gamut of modern spectroscopic techniques provides information about the conformational changes of biomolecules, fluctuations, and flexibility. This paper reviews first the thermodynamic aspects of pressure science, the important parameters affecting the volume of a molecule. The technical aspects of high pressure production are briefly mentioned, and the most common high-pressure-compatible spectroscopic techniques are also discussed. The last part of this paper deals with the main biomolecules, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids: how they are affected by pressure and what information can be gained about them using pressure. I I also briefly mention a few supramolecular structures such as viruses and bacteria. Finally, a subjective view of the most promising directions of high pressure bioscience is outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: high pressure; protein; lipid membrane; nucleic acid; G-quadruplex; FTIR; fluorescence; food science; deep sea high pressure; protein; lipid membrane; nucleic acid; G-quadruplex; FTIR; fluorescence; food science; deep sea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smeller, L. Biomolecules under Pressure: Phase Diagrams, Volume Changes, and High Pressure Spectroscopic Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 5761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105761

AMA Style

Smeller L. Biomolecules under Pressure: Phase Diagrams, Volume Changes, and High Pressure Spectroscopic Techniques. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(10):5761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smeller, László. 2022. "Biomolecules under Pressure: Phase Diagrams, Volume Changes, and High Pressure Spectroscopic Techniques" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 10: 5761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105761

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