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Review

Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent

1
Department of Research and Development, MiZ Company Limited, 2-19-15 Ofuna, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-0056, Japan
2
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg #3140, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA
3
Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, 5322 Endo, Fujisawa 252-0882, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Hausmann
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094566
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Effects and Non-DNA Targets of Ionizing Radiation)
Although ionizing radiation (radiation) is commonly used for medical diagnosis and cancer treatment, radiation-induced damages cannot be avoided. Such damages can be classified into direct and indirect damages, caused by the direct absorption of radiation energy into DNA and by free radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), generated in the process of water radiolysis. More specifically, radiation damage concerns not only direct damages to DNA, but also secondary damages to non-DNA targets, because low-dose radiation damage is mainly caused by these indirect effects. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has the potential to be a radioprotective agent because it can selectively scavenge •OH, a reactive oxygen species with strong oxidizing power. Animal experiments and clinical trials have reported that H2 exhibits a highly safe radioprotective effect. This paper reviews previously reported radioprotective effects of H2 and discusses the mechanisms of H2, not only as an antioxidant, but also in intracellular responses including anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and the regulation of gene expression. In doing so, we demonstrate the prospects of H2 as a novel and clinically applicable radioprotective agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular hydrogen; radiation-induced damage; medical application; radioprotective agent; non-DNA target; intracellular response; oxidation; inflammation; apoptosis; gene expression molecular hydrogen; radiation-induced damage; medical application; radioprotective agent; non-DNA target; intracellular response; oxidation; inflammation; apoptosis; gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirano, S.-i.; Ichikawa, Y.; Sato, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Takefuji, Y.; Satoh, F. Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4566. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094566

AMA Style

Hirano S-i, Ichikawa Y, Sato B, Yamamoto H, Takefuji Y, Satoh F. Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4566. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094566

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirano, Shin-ichi, Yusuke Ichikawa, Bunpei Sato, Haru Yamamoto, Yoshiyasu Takefuji, and Fumitake Satoh. 2021. "Molecular Hydrogen as a Potential Clinically Applicable Radioprotective Agent" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4566. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094566

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