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PIMS-TS, the New Paediatric Systemic Inflammatory Disease Related to Previous Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Infection—“Rheumatic Fever” of the 21st Century?

1
Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and Rheumatology, Medical University of Lublin, Gębali 6, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniela Bosisio and Valentina Salvi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094488
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 23 April 2021 / Published: 26 April 2021
Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (PIMS-TS) is a new systemic inflammatory disease that mainly affects children. Its course in many features resembles that of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Therefore, it is interesting that the experiences with ARF can be used in the management of patients with PIMS-TS. The aim of the article is to analyse the current data on PIMS-TS in relation to ARF. PIMS-TS and ARF are associated with an abnormal immune response to specific pathogens (SARS-CoV-2 and group A streptococcus, respectively). The main symptoms of both diseases are fever and cardiac involvement. Current therapy for PIMS-TS is based on anti-inflammatory treatment: intravenous immunoglobulin (first-line), intravenous glucocorticoids (second-line), or biological therapy (third-line; including interleukin [IL]-1 antagonists, IL-6 receptor blockers, and anti-tumour necrosis factor agents). Vaccination might be good prophylaxis, but the efficacy and safety of the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been established in children. Interesting insights may be gained by considering PIMS-TS in light of what is known of ARF due to their similar courses, but there are still many unanswered questions surrounding this disease and its pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; paediatric inflammatory multisystemic syndrome (PIMS); rheumatic fever COVID-19; paediatric inflammatory multisystemic syndrome (PIMS); rheumatic fever
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MDPI and ACS Style

Opoka-Winiarska, V.; Grywalska, E.; Roliński, J. PIMS-TS, the New Paediatric Systemic Inflammatory Disease Related to Previous Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Infection—“Rheumatic Fever” of the 21st Century? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094488

AMA Style

Opoka-Winiarska V, Grywalska E, Roliński J. PIMS-TS, the New Paediatric Systemic Inflammatory Disease Related to Previous Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Infection—“Rheumatic Fever” of the 21st Century? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094488

Chicago/Turabian Style

Opoka-Winiarska, Violetta, Ewelina Grywalska, and Jacek Roliński. 2021. "PIMS-TS, the New Paediatric Systemic Inflammatory Disease Related to Previous Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Infection—“Rheumatic Fever” of the 21st Century?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094488

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