Next Article in Journal
Beyond Dopamine Receptor Antagonism: New Targets for Schizophrenia Treatment and Prevention
Next Article in Special Issue
Novel Chemically Modified Curcumin (CMC) Analogs Exhibit Anti-Melanogenic Activity in Primary Human Melanocytes
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Marrow Microenvironment in the Growth and Development of Malignant Plasma Cells in Multiple Myeloma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Marliolide Derivative Induces Melanosome Degradation via Nrf2/p62-Mediated Autophagy
Review

Melanin Transfer in the Epidermis: The Pursuit of Skin Pigmentation Control Mechanisms

iNOVA4Health, CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, NMS, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: The Charles Institute of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland.
Academic Editor: Hideya Ando
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094466
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 21 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanosome Transport/Transfer and Melanin Pigmentation in the Skin)
The mechanisms by which the pigment melanin is transferred from melanocytes and processed within keratinocytes to achieve skin pigmentation remain ill-characterized. Nevertheless, several models have emerged in the past decades to explain the transfer process. Here, we review the proposed models for melanin transfer in the skin epidermis, the available evidence supporting each one, and the recent observations in favor of the exo/phagocytosis and shed vesicles models. In order to reconcile the transfer models, we propose that different mechanisms could co-exist to sustain skin pigmentation under different conditions. We also discuss the limited knowledge about melanin processing within keratinocytes. Finally, we pinpoint new questions that ought to be addressed to solve the long-lasting quest for the understanding of how basal skin pigmentation is controlled. This knowledge will allow the emergence of new strategies to treat pigmentary disorders that cause a significant socio-economic burden to patients and healthcare systems worldwide and could also have relevant cosmetic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanin; melanosome; melanocore; melanocyte; keratinocyte; skin pigmentation; melanokerasome melanin; melanosome; melanocore; melanocyte; keratinocyte; skin pigmentation; melanokerasome
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Moreiras, H.; Seabra, M.C.; Barral, D.C. Melanin Transfer in the Epidermis: The Pursuit of Skin Pigmentation Control Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4466. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094466

AMA Style

Moreiras H, Seabra MC, Barral DC. Melanin Transfer in the Epidermis: The Pursuit of Skin Pigmentation Control Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4466. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094466

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreiras, Hugo, Miguel C. Seabra, and Duarte C. Barral 2021. "Melanin Transfer in the Epidermis: The Pursuit of Skin Pigmentation Control Mechanisms" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4466. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094466

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop