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Communication

X-ray Fluorescence Uptake Measurement of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Cell Microsamples

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Fachbereich Physik, Universität Hamburg and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Chemistry, Universität Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Mildred Scheel Cancer Career Center, HaTriCS4, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf; Martinistraße 52, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
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Fachbereich Physik, Universität Hamburg and Center for Hybrid Nanostructures (CHyN), Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
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Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasiya, Cairo 11566, Egypt
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Fraunhofer Center for Applied Nanotechnology (CAN), Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
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Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Photon Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Manini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073691
Received: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Tumor Imaging and Therapy)
Quantitative cellular in vitro nanoparticle uptake measurements are possible with a large number of different techniques, however, all have their respective restrictions. Here, we demonstrate the application of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) on prostate tumor cells, which have internalized differently functionalized gold nanoparticles. Total nanoparticle uptake on the order of a few hundred picograms could be conveniently observed with microsamples consisting of only a few hundreds of cells. A comparison with mass spectroscopy quantification is provided, experimental results are both supported and sensitivity limits of this XFI approach extrapolated by Monte-Carlo simulations, yielding a minimum detectable nanoparticle mass of just 5 pg. This study demonstrates the high sensitivity level of XFI, allowing non-destructive uptake measurements with very small microsamples within just seconds of irradiation time. View Full-Text
Keywords: XFI; X-ray fluorescence; nanoparticles; uptake; microsample XFI; X-ray fluorescence; nanoparticles; uptake; microsample
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmutzler, O.; Graf, S.; Behm, N.; Mansour, W.Y.; Blumendorf, F.; Staufer, T.; Körnig, C.; Salah, D.; Kang, Y.; Peters, J.N.; Liu, Y.; Feliu, N.; Parak, W.J.; Burkhardt, A.; Gargioni, E.; Gennis, S.; Chandralingam, S.; Höeg, F.; Maison, W.; Rothkamm, K.; Schulz, F.; Grüner, F. X-ray Fluorescence Uptake Measurement of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Cell Microsamples. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073691

AMA Style

Schmutzler O, Graf S, Behm N, Mansour WY, Blumendorf F, Staufer T, Körnig C, Salah D, Kang Y, Peters JN, Liu Y, Feliu N, Parak WJ, Burkhardt A, Gargioni E, Gennis S, Chandralingam S, Höeg F, Maison W, Rothkamm K, Schulz F, Grüner F. X-ray Fluorescence Uptake Measurement of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Cell Microsamples. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073691

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmutzler, Oliver, Sebastian Graf, Nils Behm, Wael Y. Mansour, Florian Blumendorf, Theresa Staufer, Christian Körnig, Dina Salah, Yanan Kang, Jan N. Peters, Yang Liu, Neus Feliu, Wolfgang J. Parak, Anja Burkhardt, Elisabetta Gargioni, Sabrina Gennis, Sharah Chandralingam, Finn Höeg, Wolfgang Maison, Kai Rothkamm, Florian Schulz, and Florian Grüner. 2021. "X-ray Fluorescence Uptake Measurement of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Tumor Cell Microsamples" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3691. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073691

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