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Open AccessReview

New Insights into the Mammalian Egg Zona Pellucida

1
Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum and IMIB-Arrixaca, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR5558, CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dawit Tesfaye
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063276
Received: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
Mammalian oocytes are surrounded by an extracellular coat called the zona pellucida (ZP), which, from an evolutionary point of view, is the most ancient of the coats that envelope vertebrate oocytes and conceptuses. This matrix separates the oocyte from cumulus cells and is responsible for species-specific recognition between gametes, preventing polyspermy and protecting the preimplantation embryo. The ZP is a dynamic structure that shows different properties before and after fertilization. Until very recently, mammalian ZP was believed to be composed of only three glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3, as first described in mouse. However, studies have revealed that this composition is not necessarily applicable to other mammals. Such differences can be explained by an analysis of the molecular evolution of the ZP gene family, during which ZP genes have suffered pseudogenization and duplication events that have resulted in differing models of ZP protein composition. The many discoveries made in recent years related to ZP composition and evolution suggest that a compilation would be useful. Moreover, this review analyses ZP biosynthesis, the role of each ZP protein in different mammalian species and how these proteins may interact among themselves and with other proteins present in the oviductal lumen. View Full-Text
Keywords: zona pellucida; ZP; pseudogenization; composition; molecular evolution; mammals zona pellucida; ZP; pseudogenization; composition; molecular evolution; mammals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moros-Nicolás, C.; Chevret, P.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.; Algarra, B.; Cots-Rodríguez, P.; González-Brusi, L.; Avilés, M.; Izquierdo-Rico, M.J. New Insights into the Mammalian Egg Zona Pellucida. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063276

AMA Style

Moros-Nicolás C, Chevret P, Jiménez-Movilla M, Algarra B, Cots-Rodríguez P, González-Brusi L, Avilés M, Izquierdo-Rico MJ. New Insights into the Mammalian Egg Zona Pellucida. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):3276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moros-Nicolás, Carla; Chevret, Pascale; Jiménez-Movilla, María; Algarra, Blanca; Cots-Rodríguez, Paula; González-Brusi, Leopoldo; Avilés, Manuel; Izquierdo-Rico, Mª J. 2021. "New Insights into the Mammalian Egg Zona Pellucida" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 6: 3276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063276

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