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Open AccessReview

Role of Zinc (Zn) in Human Reproduction: A Journey from Initial Spermatogenesis to Childbirth

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Department of Biotechnology, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 602105, India
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Unit of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong 08100, Kedah, Malaysia
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 602105, India
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BCX Bioorganics, Krishnasagara Village, Attibele, Bengaluru, Karnataka 562107, India
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Department of Agriculture Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 602105, India
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Department of Bioinformatics, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 602105, India
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Department of Biotechnology, Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600062, India
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Unit of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong 08100, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Natile
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042188
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Zinc (Zn), the second-most necessary trace element, is abundant in the human body. The human body lacks the capacity to store Zn; hence, the dietary intake of Zn is essential for various functions and metabolism. The uptake of Zn during its transport through the body is important for proper development of the three major accessory sex glands: the testis, epididymis, and prostate. It plays key roles in the initial stages of germ cell development and spermatogenesis, sperm cell development and maturation, ejaculation, liquefaction, the binding of spermatozoa and prostasomes, capacitation, and fertilization. The prostate releases more Zn into the seminal plasma during ejaculation, and it plays a significant role in sperm release and motility. During the maternal, labor, perinatal, and neonatal periods, the part of Zn is vital. The average dietary intake of Zn is in the range of 8–12 mg/day in developing countries during the maternal period. Globally, the dietary intake of Zn varies for pregnant and lactating mothers, but the average Zn intake is in the range of 9.6–11.2 mg/day. The absence of Zn and the consequences of this have been discussed using critical evidence. The events and functions of Zn related to successful fertilization have been summarized in detail. Briefly, our current review emphasizes the role of Zn at each stage of human reproduction, from the spermatogenesis process to childbirth. The role of Zn and its supplementation in in vitro fertilization (IVF) opens opportunities for future studies on reproductive biology. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; seminal plasma; male infertility; human reproduction; cellular metabolism zinc; seminal plasma; male infertility; human reproduction; cellular metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vickram, S.; Rohini, K.; Srinivasan, S.; Nancy Veenakumari, D.; Archana, K.; Anbarasu, K.; Jeyanthi, P.; Thanigaivel, S.; Gulothungan, G.; Rajendiran, N.; Srikumar, P.S. Role of Zinc (Zn) in Human Reproduction: A Journey from Initial Spermatogenesis to Childbirth. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2188. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042188

AMA Style

Vickram S, Rohini K, Srinivasan S, Nancy Veenakumari D, Archana K, Anbarasu K, Jeyanthi P, Thanigaivel S, Gulothungan G, Rajendiran N, Srikumar PS. Role of Zinc (Zn) in Human Reproduction: A Journey from Initial Spermatogenesis to Childbirth. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2188. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042188

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vickram, Sundaram; Rohini, Karunakaran; Srinivasan, Subramanian; Nancy Veenakumari, David; Archana, Kumar; Anbarasu, Krishnan; Jeyanthi, Palanivelu; Thanigaivel, Sundaram; Gulothungan, Govindarajan; Rajendiran, Nanmaran; Srikumar, Padmalayam S. 2021. "Role of Zinc (Zn) in Human Reproduction: A Journey from Initial Spermatogenesis to Childbirth" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 2188. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042188

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