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Open AccessArticle

Nitrofurazone Removal from Water Enhanced by Coupling Photocatalysis and Biodegradation

1
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Gdansk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
3
Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Trincone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042186
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(1) Background: Environmental contamination with antibiotics is particularly serious because the usual methods used in wastewater treatment plants turn out to be insufficient or ineffective. An interesting idea is to support natural biodegradation processes with physicochemical methods as well as with bioaugmentation with efficient microbial degraders. Hence, the aim of our study is evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods of nitrofurazone (NFZ) degradation: photolysis and photodegradation in the presence of two photocatalysts, the commercial TiO2-P25 and a self-obtained Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 magnetic photocatalyst. (2) Methods: The chemical nature of the photocatalysis products was investigated using a spectrometric method, and then, they were subjected to biodegradation using the strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans NFZ2. Additionally, the effects of the photodegradation products on bacterial cell surface properties and membranes were studied. (3) Results: Photocatalysis with TiO2-P25 allowed reduction of NFZ by over 90%, demonstrating that this method is twice as effective as photolysis alone. Moreover, the bacterial strain used proved to be effective in the removal of NFZ, as well as its intermediates. (4) Conclusions: The results indicated that photocatalysis alone or coupled with biodegradation with the strain A. xylosoxidans NFZ2 leads to efficient degradation and almost complete mineralization of NFZ. View Full-Text
Keywords: photocatalysis; biodegradation; nitrofurazone; photodegradation; pharmaceuticals; TiO2; wastewater photocatalysis; biodegradation; nitrofurazone; photodegradation; pharmaceuticals; TiO2; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smułek, W.; Bielan, Z.; Pacholak, A.; Zdarta, A.; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, A.; Zielińska-Jurek, A.; Kaczorek, E. Nitrofurazone Removal from Water Enhanced by Coupling Photocatalysis and Biodegradation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042186

AMA Style

Smułek W, Bielan Z, Pacholak A, Zdarta A, Zgoła-Grześkowiak A, Zielińska-Jurek A, Kaczorek E. Nitrofurazone Removal from Water Enhanced by Coupling Photocatalysis and Biodegradation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smułek, Wojciech; Bielan, Zuzanna; Pacholak, Amanda; Zdarta, Agata; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Zielińska-Jurek, Anna; Kaczorek, Ewa. 2021. "Nitrofurazone Removal from Water Enhanced by Coupling Photocatalysis and Biodegradation" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 2186. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042186

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