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Review

Female Germ Cell Development, Functioning and Associated Adversities under Unfavorable Circumstances

1
Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, India
3
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0021, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editors: Marco Barchi , Paolo Chieffi and Andrea Garolla
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041979
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Germ Cells and Genitourinary Cancers)
In the present era, infertility is one of the major issues which restricts many couples to have their own children. Infertility is the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse for the period of one year or more. Various factors including defective male or female germ cell development, unhealthy and improper lifestyles, diseases like cancer and associated chemo-or-radiation therapies, congenital disorders, etc., may be responsible for infertility. Therefore, it is highly important to understand the basic concepts of germ cell development including primordial germ cell (PGC) formation, specification, migration, entry to genital ridges and their molecular mechanisms, activated pathways, paracrine and autocrine signaling, along with possible alteration which can hamper germ cell development and can cause adversities like cancer progression and infertility. Knowing all these aspects in a proper way can be very much helpful in improving our understanding about gametogenesis and finding possible ways to cure related disorders. Here in this review, various aspects of gametogenesis especially female gametes and relevant factors causing functional impairment have been thoroughly discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gametogenesis; oocytes; pathways; signaling; stem cells; differentiation; tumor; cancer gametogenesis; oocytes; pathways; signaling; stem cells; differentiation; tumor; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bharti, D.; Tikka, M.; Lee, S.-Y.; Bok, E.-Y.; Lee, H.-J.; Rho, G.-J. Female Germ Cell Development, Functioning and Associated Adversities under Unfavorable Circumstances. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1979. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041979

AMA Style

Bharti D, Tikka M, Lee S-Y, Bok E-Y, Lee H-J, Rho G-J. Female Germ Cell Development, Functioning and Associated Adversities under Unfavorable Circumstances. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1979. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041979

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bharti, Dinesh, Manisha Tikka, Sang-Yun Lee, Eun-Yeong Bok, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, and Gyu-Jin Rho. 2021. "Female Germ Cell Development, Functioning and Associated Adversities under Unfavorable Circumstances" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1979. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041979

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