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The Effect of an Anthropogenic Magnetic Field on the Early Developmental Stages of Fishes—A Review

Feed Restriction Modulates Growth, Gut Morphology and Gene Expression in Zebrafish

Reproductive Genomics Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore 117604, Singapore
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Dr, Singapore 138673, Singapore
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Norway.
Current address: School of Applied Science, Republic Polytechnic, 9 Woodlands Avenue 9, Singapore 738964, Singapore.
Current address: Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.
Academic Editor: Carlo C. Lazado
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1814;
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
A reduction in daily caloric or nutrient intake has been observed to promote health benefits in mammals and other vertebrates. Feed Restriction (FR), whereby the overall food intake of the organism is reduced, has been explored as a method to improve metabolic and immune health, as well as to optimize productivity in farming. However, less is known regarding the molecular and physiological consequences of FR. Using the model organism, Danio rerio, we investigated the impact of a short-term (month-long) FR on growth, gut morphology and gene expression. Our data suggest that FR has minimal effects on the average growth rates, but it may affect weight and size heterogeneity in a sex-dependent manner. In the gut, we observed a significant reduction in gut circumference and generally lower mucosal heights, whereas other parameters remained unchanged. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis identified numerous metabolic, reproductive, and immune response pathways that were affected by FR. These results broaden our understanding of FR and contribute towards growing knowledge of its effects on vertebrate health. View Full-Text
Keywords: Danio rerio; gut; calorie restriction; feed restriction Danio rerio; gut; calorie restriction; feed restriction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Purushothaman, K.; Tan, J.K.H.; Lau, D.; Saju, J.M.; Thevasagayam, N.M.; Wee, C.L.; Vij, S. Feed Restriction Modulates Growth, Gut Morphology and Gene Expression in Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1814.

AMA Style

Purushothaman K, Tan JKH, Lau D, Saju JM, Thevasagayam NM, Wee CL, Vij S. Feed Restriction Modulates Growth, Gut Morphology and Gene Expression in Zebrafish. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):1814.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Purushothaman, Kathiresan, Jerryl K.H. Tan, Doreen Lau, Jolly M. Saju, Natascha M. Thevasagayam, Caroline L. Wee, and Shubha Vij. 2021. "Feed Restriction Modulates Growth, Gut Morphology and Gene Expression in Zebrafish" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 1814.

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