Skeletal muscle cells, albeit classified as vitamin D receptor (VDR)-poor cells, are finely controlled by vitamin D through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Skeletal muscle constantly undergoes cell remodeling, a complex system under multilevel regulation, mainly orchestrated by the satellite niche in response to a variety of stimuli. Cell remodeling is not limited to satisfy reparative and hypertrophic needs, but, through myocyte transcriptome/proteome renewal, it warrants the adaptations necessary to maintain tissue integrity. While vitamin D insufficiency promotes cell maladaptation, restoring vitamin D levels can correct/enhance the myogenic program. Hence, vitamin D fortified foods or supplementation potentially represents the desired approach to limit or avoid muscle wasting and ameliorate health. Nevertheless, consensus on protocols for vitamin D measurement and supplementation is still lacking, due to the high variability of lab tests and of the levels required in different contexts (i.e., age, sex, heath status, lifestyle). This review aims to describe how vitamin D can orchestrate skeletal muscle cell remodeling and myogenic programming, after reviewing the main processes and cell populations involved in this important process, whose correct progress highly impacts on human health. Topics on vitamin D optimal levels, supplementation and blood determination, which are still under debate, will be addressed.
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