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Article

Comparison of Circulating Markers and Mucosal Immune Parameters from Skin and Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon in Two Models of Acute Stress

1
Department of Animal and Aquaculture Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1430 Ås, Norway
2
Department of Preclinical Sciences and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1430 Ås, Norway
3
Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
4
Grupo de Marcadores Inmunológicos en Organismos Acuáticos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, 2950 Valparaíso, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031028
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Mucosal Physiology and Immunology)
Ensuring salmon health and welfare is crucial to maximize production in recirculation aquaculture systems. Healthy and robust mucosal surfaces of the skin and intestine are essential to achieve this goal because they are the first immunological defenses and are constantly exposed to multistressor conditions, such as infectious diseases, suboptimal nutrition, and environmental and handling stress. In this work, Atlantic salmon, split from a single cohort, were subjected to acute hypoxia stress or 15-min crowding stress and observed over a 24-h recovery period. Samples were collected from fish at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-stress to analyze plasma-circulating markers of endocrine function (cortisol), oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase) and immune function (interleukin 10 (IL-10), annexin A1). In addition, mucosal barrier function parameters were measured in the skin mucus (Muc-like protein and lysozyme) and distal intestine (simple folds, goblet cell size and goblet cell area). The results showed that both acute stress models induced increases of circulating cortisol in plasma (1 h post-stress), which then returned to baseline values (initial control) at 24 h post-stress. Moreover, the hypoxia stress was mostly related to increased oxidative stress and IL-10 production, whereas the crowding stress was associated with a higher production of Muc-like protein and lysozyme in the skin mucus. Interestingly, in the distal intestine, smaller goblet cells were detected immediately and one hour after post-hypoxia stress, which could be related to rapid release of the cellular content to protect this organ. Finally, the correlation of different markers in the hypoxic stress model showed that the circulating levels of cortisol and IL-10 were directly proportional, while the availability of Muc-like proteins was inversely proportional to the size of the goblet cells. On the other hand, in the crowding stress model, a proportional relationship was established between plasma cortisol levels and skin mucus lysozyme. Our results suggest key differences in energy partitioning between the two acute stress models and support the need for further investigation into the interplay of multistressor conditions and strategies to modulate immunological aspects of mucosal surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmo salar; hypoxia; crowding stress; plasma; skin mucus; distal intestine; phenotypic parameters Salmo salar; hypoxia; crowding stress; plasma; skin mucus; distal intestine; phenotypic parameters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djordjevic, B.; Morales-Lange, B.; McLean Press, C.; Olson, J.; Lagos, L.; Mercado, L.; Øverland, M. Comparison of Circulating Markers and Mucosal Immune Parameters from Skin and Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon in Two Models of Acute Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031028

AMA Style

Djordjevic B, Morales-Lange B, McLean Press C, Olson J, Lagos L, Mercado L, Øverland M. Comparison of Circulating Markers and Mucosal Immune Parameters from Skin and Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon in Two Models of Acute Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Djordjevic, Brankica, Byron Morales-Lange, Charles McLean Press, Jake Olson, Leidy Lagos, Luis Mercado, and Margareth Øverland. 2021. "Comparison of Circulating Markers and Mucosal Immune Parameters from Skin and Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon in Two Models of Acute Stress" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1028. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031028

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