DNA methylation is an epigenetic change to the genome that impacts gene activities without modification to the DNA sequence. Alteration in the methylation pattern is a naturally occurring event throughout the human life cycle which may result in the development of diseases such as cancer. In this study, we analyzed methylation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, under the Lower-Grade Glioma (LGG) and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) projects, to identify methylation markers that exhibit unique changes in DNA methylation pattern along with tumor grade progression, to predict patient survival. We found ten glioma grade-associated Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites that targeted four genes (SMOC1, KCNA4, SLC25A21
, and UPP1
) and the methylation pattern is strongly associated with glioma specific molecular alterations, primarily isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and chromosome 1p/19q codeletion. The ten CpG sites collectively distinguished a cohort of diffuse glioma patients with remarkably poor survival probability. Our study highlights genes (KCNA4
) that were not previously associated with gliomas to have contributed to the poorer patient outcome. These CpG sites can aid glioma tumor progression monitoring and serve as prognostic markers to identify patients diagnosed with less aggressive and malignant gliomas that exhibit similar survival probability to GBM patients.
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