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Article

Effects of Pesticides on Longevity and Bioenergetics in Invertebrates—The Impact of Polyphenolic Metabolites

Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg (BFS), Laboratory for Nutrition in Prevention and Therapy, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Schubertstrasse 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Melitta Schachner and Kazuhide Hayakawa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413478
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 15 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Environmentally hazardous substances such as pesticides are gaining increasing interest in agricultural and nutritional research. This study aims to investigate the impact of these compounds on the healthspan and mitochondrial functions in an invertebrate in vivo model and in vitro in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and to investigate the potential of polyphenolic metabolites to compensate for potential impacts. Wild-type nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans, N2) were treated with pesticides such as pyraclostrobin (Pyr), glyphosate (Gly), or fluopyram (Fluo). The lifespans of the nematodes under heat stress conditions (37 °C) were determined, and the chemotaxis was assayed. Energetic metabolites, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactate, and pyruvate, were analyzed in lysates of nematodes and cells. Genetic expression patterns of several genes associated with lifespan determination and mitochondrial parameters were assessed via qRT-PCR. After incubation with environmentally hazardous substances, nematodes were incubated with a pre-fermented polyphenol mixture (Rechtsregulat®Bio, RR) or protocatechuic acid (PCA) to determine heat stress resistance. Treatment with Pyr, Glyph and Fluo leads to dose-dependently decreased heat stress resistance, which was significantly improved by RR and PCA. The chemotaxes of the nematodes were not affected by pesticides. ATP levels were not significantly altered by the pesticides, except for Pyr, which increased ATP levels after 48 h leads. The gene expression of healthspan and mitochondria-associated genes were diversely affected by the pesticides, while Pyr led to an overall decrease of mRNA levels. Over time, the treatment of nematodes leads to a recovery of the nematodes on the mitochondrial level but not on stress resistance on gene expression. Fermented extracts of fruits and vegetables and phenolic metabolites such as PCA seem to have the potential to recover the vitality of C. elegans after damage caused by pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; pesticides; fluopyram; glyphosate; pyraclostrobin; mitochondria Caenorhabditis elegans; pesticides; fluopyram; glyphosate; pyraclostrobin; mitochondria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmitt, F.; Babylon, L.; Dieter, F.; Eckert, G.P. Effects of Pesticides on Longevity and Bioenergetics in Invertebrates—The Impact of Polyphenolic Metabolites. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 13478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413478

AMA Style

Schmitt F, Babylon L, Dieter F, Eckert GP. Effects of Pesticides on Longevity and Bioenergetics in Invertebrates—The Impact of Polyphenolic Metabolites. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(24):13478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmitt, Fabian, Lukas Babylon, Fabian Dieter, and Gunter P. Eckert. 2021. "Effects of Pesticides on Longevity and Bioenergetics in Invertebrates—The Impact of Polyphenolic Metabolites" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 24: 13478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413478

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