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Review

Designing Cardiovascular Implants Taking in View the Endothelial Basement Membrane

1
Institute of Active Polymers and Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Kantstraße 55, 14513 Teltow, Germany
2
Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John G. Hardy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313120
Received: 25 October 2021 / Revised: 25 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 4 December 2021
Insufficient endothelialization of cardiovascular grafts is a major hurdle in vascular surgery and regenerative medicine, bearing a risk for early graft thrombosis. Neither of the numerous strategies pursued to solve these problems were conclusive. Endothelialization is regulated by the endothelial basement membrane (EBM), a highly specialized part of the vascular extracellular matrix. Thus, a detailed understanding of the structure–function interrelations of the EBM components is fundamental for designing biomimetic materials aiming to mimic EBM functions. In this review, a detailed description of the structure and functions of the EBM are provided, including the luminal and abluminal interactions with adjacent cell types, such as vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, in vivo as well as in vitro strategies to build or renew EBM are summarized and critically discussed. The spectrum of methods includes vessel decellularization and implant biofunctionalization strategies as well as tissue engineering-based approaches and bioprinting. Finally, the limitations of these methods are highlighted, and future directions are suggested to help improve future design strategies for EBM-inspired materials in the cardiovascular field. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial cells; bioinstructive implants; vascular grafts; tissue engineering; bioprinting; bioinspired materials; biological membrane; endothelial basement membrane; biomaterial endothelial cells; bioinstructive implants; vascular grafts; tissue engineering; bioprinting; bioinspired materials; biological membrane; endothelial basement membrane; biomaterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lau, S.; Gossen, M.; Lendlein, A. Designing Cardiovascular Implants Taking in View the Endothelial Basement Membrane. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 13120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313120

AMA Style

Lau S, Gossen M, Lendlein A. Designing Cardiovascular Implants Taking in View the Endothelial Basement Membrane. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):13120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313120

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lau, Skadi, Manfred Gossen, and Andreas Lendlein. 2021. "Designing Cardiovascular Implants Taking in View the Endothelial Basement Membrane" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 23: 13120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313120

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