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Review

The Role of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Mediated Inflammation in Pancreatic Cancer Pathophysiology

by 1,*,† and 2,*,†
1
NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA
2
Biogem Scarl, Istituto di Ricerche Genetiche Gaetano Salvatore, 83031 Ariano Irpino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Kim M. O’sullivan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312743
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer, characterized by its aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Despite significant improvements in PC treatment and management, the complexity of the molecular pathways underlying its development has severely limited the available therapeutic opportunities. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in inflammation and immune response, as they are involved in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Activation of TLRs initiates a signaling cascade, which in turn, leads to the transcription of several genes involved in inflammation and anti-microbial defense. TLRs are also deregulated in several cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and potential targets for cancer-targeted therapy. In this review we discuss the current knowledge about the role of TLRs in PC progression, focusing on the available TLRs-targeting compounds and their possible use in PC therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; toll-like receptor; inflammation; chemotherapy pancreatic cancer; toll-like receptor; inflammation; chemotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orlacchio, A.; Mazzone, P. The Role of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Mediated Inflammation in Pancreatic Cancer Pathophysiology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312743

AMA Style

Orlacchio A, Mazzone P. The Role of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Mediated Inflammation in Pancreatic Cancer Pathophysiology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):12743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312743

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orlacchio, Arturo, and Pellegrino Mazzone. 2021. "The Role of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) Mediated Inflammation in Pancreatic Cancer Pathophysiology" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 23: 12743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312743

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