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Review

SDHI Fungicide Toxicity and Associated Adverse Outcome Pathways: What Can Zebrafish Tell Us?

Inserm U1141, NeuroDiderot, Université de Paris, F-75019 Paris, France
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dejan Stojković, Marija Ivanov and Ana Ćirić
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212362
Received: 7 October 2021 / Revised: 8 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 16 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic and Natural Antifungals—Desirable and Hazardous Effects)
Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are increasingly used in agriculture to combat molds and fungi, two major threats to both food supply and public health. However, the essential requirement for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex—the molecular target of SDHIs—in energy metabolism for almost all extant eukaryotes and the lack of species specificity of these fungicides raise concerns about their toxicity toward off-target organisms and, more generally, toward the environment. Herein we review the current knowledge on the toxicity toward zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) of nine commonly used SDHI fungicides: bixafen, boscalid, fluxapyroxad, flutolanil, isoflucypram, isopyrazam, penthiopyrad, sedaxane, and thifluzamide. The results indicate that these SDHIs cause multiple adverse effects in embryos, larvae/juveniles, and/or adults, sometimes at developmentally relevant concentrations. Adverse effects include developmental toxicity, cardiovascular abnormalities, liver and kidney damage, oxidative stress, energy deficits, changes in metabolism, microcephaly, axon growth defects, apoptosis, and transcriptome changes, suggesting that glycometabolism deficit, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are critical in the toxicity of most of these SDHIs. However, other adverse outcome pathways, possibly involving unsuspected molecular targets, are also suggested. Lastly, we note that because of their recent arrival on the market, the number of studies addressing the toxicity of these compounds is still scant, emphasizing the need to further investigate the toxicity of all SDHIs currently used and to identify their adverse effects and associated modes of action, both alone and in combination with other pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors; SDHIs; fungicide; zebrafish; bixafen; boscalid; fluxapyroxad; flutolanil; isoflucypram; isopyrazam; penthiopyrad; sedaxane; thifluzamide; neurodevelopment succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors; SDHIs; fungicide; zebrafish; bixafen; boscalid; fluxapyroxad; flutolanil; isoflucypram; isopyrazam; penthiopyrad; sedaxane; thifluzamide; neurodevelopment
MDPI and ACS Style

Yanicostas, C.; Soussi-Yanicostas, N. SDHI Fungicide Toxicity and Associated Adverse Outcome Pathways: What Can Zebrafish Tell Us? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212362

AMA Style

Yanicostas C, Soussi-Yanicostas N. SDHI Fungicide Toxicity and Associated Adverse Outcome Pathways: What Can Zebrafish Tell Us? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(22):12362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yanicostas, Constantin, and Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas. 2021. "SDHI Fungicide Toxicity and Associated Adverse Outcome Pathways: What Can Zebrafish Tell Us?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 22: 12362. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212362

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