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Review

Progress of Signaling Pathways, Stress Pathways and Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Skeletal Fluorosis

Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this manuscript.
Academic Editors: Alexey A. Tinkov and Anatoly Skalny
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111932
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 27 October 2021 / Accepted: 28 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Trace Elements in Diseases)
Fluorine is widely dispersed in nature and has multiple physiological functions. Although it is usually regarded as an essential trace element for humans, this view is not held universally. Moreover, chronic fluorosis, mainly characterized by skeletal fluorosis, can be induced by long-term excessive fluoride consumption. High concentrations of fluoride in the environment and drinking water are major causes, and patients with skeletal fluorosis mainly present with symptoms of osteosclerosis, osteochondrosis, osteoporosis, and degenerative changes in joint cartilage. Etiologies for skeletal fluorosis have been established, but the specific pathogenesis is inconclusive. Currently, active osteogenesis and accelerated bone turnover are considered critical processes in the progression of skeletal fluorosis. In recent years, researchers have conducted extensive studies in fields of signaling pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Hedgehog, parathyroid hormone, and insulin signaling pathways), stress pathways (oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways), epigenetics (DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs), and their inter-regulation involved in the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis. In this review, we summarised and analyzed relevant findings to provide a basis for comprehensive understandings of the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis and hopefully propose more effective prevention and therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal fluorosis; fluoride; endemic disease; signaling pathways; epigenetics; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress skeletal fluorosis; fluoride; endemic disease; signaling pathways; epigenetics; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qiao, L.; Liu, X.; He, Y.; Zhang, J.; Huang, H.; Bian, W.; Chilufya, M.M.; Zhao, Y.; Han, J. Progress of Signaling Pathways, Stress Pathways and Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Skeletal Fluorosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111932

AMA Style

Qiao L, Liu X, He Y, Zhang J, Huang H, Bian W, Chilufya MM, Zhao Y, Han J. Progress of Signaling Pathways, Stress Pathways and Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Skeletal Fluorosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(21):11932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qiao, Lichun, Xuan Liu, Yujie He, Jiaheng Zhang, Hao Huang, Wenming Bian, Mumba Mulutula Chilufya, Yan Zhao, and Jing Han. 2021. "Progress of Signaling Pathways, Stress Pathways and Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Skeletal Fluorosis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 21: 11932. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111932

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