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Review

Adult Neurogenesis: A Story Ranging from Controversial New Neurogenic Areas and Human Adult Neurogenesis to Molecular Regulation

1
Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Iberoamericana Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México 01219, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Neurobiología de la Alimentación, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tlalnepantla 54090, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors should be considered first authors.
Academic Editor: Estela Castilla Ortega
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111489
Received: 28 August 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 7 October 2021 / Published: 25 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Functional Aspects of Adult Neurogenesis)
The generation of new neurons in the adult brain is a currently accepted phenomenon. Over the past few decades, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been described as the two main neurogenic niches. Neurogenic niches generate new neurons through an asymmetric division process involving several developmental steps. This process occurs throughout life in several species, including humans. These new neurons possess unique properties that contribute to the local circuitry. Despite several efforts, no other neurogenic zones have been observed in many years; the lack of observation is probably due to technical issues. However, in recent years, more brain niches have been described, once again breaking the current paradigms. Currently, a debate in the scientific community about new neurogenic areas of the brain, namely, human adult neurogenesis, is ongoing. Thus, several open questions regarding new neurogenic niches, as well as this phenomenon in adult humans, their functional relevance, and their mechanisms, remain to be answered. In this review, we discuss the literature and provide a compressive overview of the known neurogenic zones, traditional zones, and newly described zones. Additionally, we will review the regulatory roles of some molecular mechanisms, such as miRNAs, neurotrophic factors, and neurotrophins. We also join the debate on human adult neurogenesis, and we will identify similarities and differences in the literature and summarize the knowledge regarding these interesting topics. View Full-Text
Keywords: adult neurogenesis; subventricular zone; striatum; hippocampus; habenula; cerebellum; substantia nigra; hypothalamus; neurotrophin; microRNA adult neurogenesis; subventricular zone; striatum; hippocampus; habenula; cerebellum; substantia nigra; hypothalamus; neurotrophin; microRNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leal-Galicia, P.; Chávez-Hernández, M.E.; Mata, F.; Mata-Luévanos, J.; Rodríguez-Serrano, L.M.; Tapia-de-Jesús, A.; Buenrostro-Jáuregui, M.H. Adult Neurogenesis: A Story Ranging from Controversial New Neurogenic Areas and Human Adult Neurogenesis to Molecular Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111489

AMA Style

Leal-Galicia P, Chávez-Hernández ME, Mata F, Mata-Luévanos J, Rodríguez-Serrano LM, Tapia-de-Jesús A, Buenrostro-Jáuregui MH. Adult Neurogenesis: A Story Ranging from Controversial New Neurogenic Areas and Human Adult Neurogenesis to Molecular Regulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(21):11489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111489

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leal-Galicia, Perla, María E. Chávez-Hernández, Florencia Mata, Jesús Mata-Luévanos, Luis M. Rodríguez-Serrano, Alejandro Tapia-de-Jesús, and Mario H. Buenrostro-Jáuregui. 2021. "Adult Neurogenesis: A Story Ranging from Controversial New Neurogenic Areas and Human Adult Neurogenesis to Molecular Regulation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 21: 11489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111489

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