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Review

Placental Ischemia Says “NO” to Proper NOS-Mediated Control of Vascular Tone and Blood Pressure in Preeclampsia

1
Department of Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
2
Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
3
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tzong-Shyuan Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011261
Received: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Synthases: Regulation and Function 2021)
In this review, we first provide a brief overview of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and biochemistry. This is followed by describing what is known about NOS-mediated blood pressure control during normal pregnancy. Circulating nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been assessed by measuring its metabolites, nitrite (NO2) and/or nitrate (NO3), and shown to rise throughout normal pregnancy in humans and rats and decline postpartum. In contrast, placental malperfusion/ischemia leads to systemic reductions in NO bioavailability leading to maternal endothelial and vascular dysfunction with subsequent development of hypertension in PE. We end this article by describing emergent risk factors for placental malperfusion and ischemic disease and discussing strategies to target the NOS system therapeutically to increase NO bioavailability in preeclamptic patients. Throughout this discussion, we highlight the critical importance that experimental animal studies have played in our current understanding of NOS biology in normal pregnancy and their use in finding novel ways to preserve this signaling pathway to prevent the development, treat symptoms, or reduce the severity of PE. View Full-Text
Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthases; potential therapies; preeclampsia; pregnancy intrauterine growth restriction; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthases; potential therapies; preeclampsia; pregnancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palei, A.C.; Granger, J.P.; Spradley, F.T. Placental Ischemia Says “NO” to Proper NOS-Mediated Control of Vascular Tone and Blood Pressure in Preeclampsia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011261

AMA Style

Palei AC, Granger JP, Spradley FT. Placental Ischemia Says “NO” to Proper NOS-Mediated Control of Vascular Tone and Blood Pressure in Preeclampsia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):11261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011261

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palei, Ana C., Joey P. Granger, and Frank T. Spradley. 2021. "Placental Ischemia Says “NO” to Proper NOS-Mediated Control of Vascular Tone and Blood Pressure in Preeclampsia" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 11261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011261

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