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Molecular Mechanisms and Animal Models of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: With Emphasis on Metastatic Tumor Antigen 1
Review

Blood-Based Biomarkers in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Including the Viral Genome and Glycosylated Proteins

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jeong-Won Jang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011051
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and is a global public health issue. High performance biomarkers can aid the early detection of HCC development in HBV-infected individuals. In addition, advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of HBV infection and in clinical laboratory techniques have enabled the establishment of disease-specific tests, prediction of the progression of liver diseases, including HCC, and auxiliary diagnosis of HCC, using blood-based methods instead of biopsies of liver or HCC tissues. Viral factors such as the HBV genotype, HBV genetic mutations, HBV DNA, and HBV-related antigens, as well as host factors, such as tumor-associated proteins and post-translational modifications, especially glycosylated proteins, can be blood-based, disease-specific biomarkers for HCC development in HBV-infected patients. In this review, we describe the clinical applications of viral biomarkers, including the HBV genome and glycosylated proteins, for patients at a risk of HBV-related HCC, based on their molecular mechanisms. In addition, we introduce promising biomarker candidates for practical use, including colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), extracellular vesicles, and cell-free, circulating tumor DNA. The clinical use of such surrogate markers may lead to a better understanding of the risk of disease progression and early detection of HCC in HBV-infected patients, thereby improving their prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis B virus (HBV); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); HBV genotype; HBV genetic mutations; hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg); alpha fetoprotein-L3 (AFP-L3); Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) hepatitis B virus (HBV); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); HBV genotype; HBV genetic mutations; hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg); alpha fetoprotein-L3 (AFP-L3); Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayashi, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Tanaka, Y. Blood-Based Biomarkers in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Including the Viral Genome and Glycosylated Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11051. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011051

AMA Style

Hayashi S, Nagaoka K, Tanaka Y. Blood-Based Biomarkers in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Including the Viral Genome and Glycosylated Proteins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(20):11051. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayashi, Sanae, Katsuya Nagaoka, and Yasuhito Tanaka. 2021. "Blood-Based Biomarkers in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Including the Viral Genome and Glycosylated Proteins" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 20: 11051. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011051

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