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Open AccessReview

Cell-Based Tracers as Trojan Horses for Image-Guided Surgery

1
Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
2
Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Department of Radiology, Translational Nanomaterials and Imaging Group, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
5
Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
6
Department of Research and Development, UniQure, 1100 DA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
7
Percuros B.V. Leiden, 2333 CL Leiden, The Netherlands
8
Translational Molecular Imaging, Clinic of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medicine Center Göttingen and Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
9
Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020755
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging in Nanomedical Research)
Surgeons rely almost completely on their own vision and palpation to recognize affected tissues during surgery. Consequently, they are often unable to distinguish between different cells and tissue types. This makes accurate and complete resection cumbersome. Targeted image-guided surgery (IGS) provides a solution by enabling real-time tissue recognition. Most current targeting agents (tracers) consist of antibodies or peptides equipped with a radiolabel for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) labels, or a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye. These tracers are preoperatively administered to patients, home in on targeted cells or tissues, and are visualized in the operating room via dedicated imaging systems. Instead of using these ‘passive’ tracers, there are other, more ‘active’ approaches of probe delivery conceivable by using living cells (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, T cells, mesenchymal stromal cells), cell(-derived) fragments (platelets, extracellular vesicles (exosomes)), and microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) or, alternatively, ‘humanized’ nanoparticles. Compared with current tracers, these active contrast agents might be more efficient for the specific targeting of tumors or other pathological tissues (e.g., atherosclerotic plaques). This review provides an overview of the arsenal of possibilities applicable for the concept of cell-based tracers for IGS. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell-based imaging; near-infrared; nuclear imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; leukocyte; mesenchymal stromal cell; platelets; extracellular vesicle; microorganisms; nanoparticle cell-based imaging; near-infrared; nuclear imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; leukocyte; mesenchymal stromal cell; platelets; extracellular vesicle; microorganisms; nanoparticle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sier, V.Q.; de Vries, M.R.; van der Vorst, J.R.; Vahrmeijer, A.L.; van Kooten, C.; Cruz, L.J.; de Geus-Oei, L.-F.; Ferreira, V.; Sier, C.F.M.; Alves, F.; Muthana, M. Cell-Based Tracers as Trojan Horses for Image-Guided Surgery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020755

AMA Style

Sier VQ, de Vries MR, van der Vorst JR, Vahrmeijer AL, van Kooten C, Cruz LJ, de Geus-Oei L-F, Ferreira V, Sier CFM, Alves F, Muthana M. Cell-Based Tracers as Trojan Horses for Image-Guided Surgery. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020755

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sier, Vincent Q.; de Vries, Margreet R.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; van Kooten, Cornelis; Cruz, Luis J.; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Ferreira, Valerie; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Alves, Frauke; Muthana, Munitta. 2021. "Cell-Based Tracers as Trojan Horses for Image-Guided Surgery" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020755

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