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Article

Species-Specific and Distance-Dependent Dispersive Behaviour of Forisomes in Different Legume Species

1
Plant Physiology, Matthias Schleiden Institute for Genetics, Bioinformatics and Molecular Botany, Faculty of Biological Science, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 159, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Str. 8, 07745 Jena, Germany
3
Interdisciplinary Research Centre, Institute of Phytopathology, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020492
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 2 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical and Chemical Signaling in Plant Defence)
Forisomes are giant fusiform protein complexes composed of sieve element occlusion (SEO) protein monomers, exclusively found in sieve elements (SEs) of legumes. Forisomes block the phloem mass flow by a Ca2+-induced conformational change (swelling and rounding). We studied the forisome reactivity in four different legume species—Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Trifolium pratense and Vicia faba. Depending on the species, we found direct relationships between SE diameter, forisome surface area and distance from the leaf tip, all indicative of a developmentally tuned regulation of SE diameter and forisome size. Heat-induced forisome dispersion occurred later with increasing distance from the stimulus site. T. pratense and V. faba dispersion occurred faster for forisomes with a smaller surface area. Near the stimulus site, electro potential waves (EPWs)—overlapping action (APs), and variation potentials (VPs)—were linked with high full-dispersion rates of forisomes. Distance-associated reduction of forisome reactivity was assigned to the disintegration of EPWs into APs, VPs and system potentials (SPs). Overall, APs and SPs alone were unable to induce forisome dispersion and only VPs above a critical threshold were capable of inducing forisome reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrophysiology; forisome; Medicago sativa; Pisum sativum; sieve-tube occlusion; systemic signalling; Trifolium pratense; Vicia faba electrophysiology; forisome; Medicago sativa; Pisum sativum; sieve-tube occlusion; systemic signalling; Trifolium pratense; Vicia faba
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paulmann, M.K.; Zimmermann, M.R.; Wegner, L.; van Bel, A.J.E.; Kunert, G.; Furch, A.C.U. Species-Specific and Distance-Dependent Dispersive Behaviour of Forisomes in Different Legume Species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020492

AMA Style

Paulmann MK, Zimmermann MR, Wegner L, van Bel AJE, Kunert G, Furch ACU. Species-Specific and Distance-Dependent Dispersive Behaviour of Forisomes in Different Legume Species. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020492

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paulmann, Maria K., Matthias R. Zimmermann, Linus Wegner, Aart J.E. van Bel, Grit Kunert, and Alexandra C.U. Furch. 2021. "Species-Specific and Distance-Dependent Dispersive Behaviour of Forisomes in Different Legume Species" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 492. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020492

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