Next Article in Journal
Persistence of Lipoproteins and Cholesterol Alterations after Sepsis: Implication for Atherosclerosis Progression
Next Article in Special Issue
IFPTML Mapping of Drug Graphs with Protein and Chromosome Structural Networks vs. Pre-Clinical Assay Information for Discovery of Antimalarial Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Translocation of TMEM175 Lysosomal Potassium Channel to the Plasma Membrane by Dynasore Compounds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hybrid Deep Learning Based on a Heterogeneous Network Profile for Functional Annotations of Plasmodium falciparum Genes
Article

The Crosstalk between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the RAA System in Essential Hypertension—Analyses Using Systems Approach

1
Department of Medical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Computing Science, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
3
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Humberto González-Díaz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910518
Received: 3 September 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Networks, Bio-Molecular Systems, and Machine Learning)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has affected and continues to affect millions of people across the world. Patients with essential arterial hypertension and renal complications are at particular risk of the fatal course of this infection. In our study, we have modeled the selected processes in a patient with essential hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffering from COVID-19, emphasizing the function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system. The model has been built in the language of Petri nets theory. Using the systems approach, we have analyzed how COVID-19 may affect the studied organism, and we have checked whether the administration of selected anti-hypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)) may impact the severity of the infection. Besides, we have assessed whether these drugs effectively lower blood pressure in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection affecting essential hypertensive patients. Our research has shown that neither the ACEIs nor the ARBs worsens the course infection. However, when assessing the treatment of hypertension in the active SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have observed that ARBs might not effectively reduce blood pressure; they may even have the slightly opposite effect. On the other hand, we have confirmed the effectiveness of arterial hypertension treatment in patients receiving ACEIs. Moreover, we have found that the simultaneous use of ARBs and ACEIs averages the effects of taking both drugs, thus leading to only a slight decrease in blood pressure. We are a way from suggesting that ARBs in all hypertensive patients with COVID-19 are ineffective, but we have shown that research in this area should still be continued. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; essential hypertension; mathematical modeling; Petri nets SARS-CoV-2; essential hypertension; mathematical modeling; Petri nets
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Formanowicz, D.; Gutowska, K.; Szawulak, B.; Formanowicz, P. The Crosstalk between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the RAA System in Essential Hypertension—Analyses Using Systems Approach. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10518. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910518

AMA Style

Formanowicz D, Gutowska K, Szawulak B, Formanowicz P. The Crosstalk between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the RAA System in Essential Hypertension—Analyses Using Systems Approach. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(19):10518. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Formanowicz, Dorota, Kaja Gutowska, Bartłomiej Szawulak, and Piotr Formanowicz. 2021. "The Crosstalk between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the RAA System in Essential Hypertension—Analyses Using Systems Approach" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 19: 10518. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910518

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop