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Review

Lipid Droplets and Their Autophagic Turnover via the Raft-Like Vacuolar Microdomains

1
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
3
School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jean-Pierre Jaffrézou
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158144
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raft Microdomains and Cell Signaling)
Although once perceived as inert structures that merely serve for lipid storage, lipid droplets (LDs) have proven to be the dynamic organelles that hold many cellular functions. The LDs’ basic structure of a hydrophobic core consisting of neutral lipids and enclosed in a phospholipid monolayer allows for quick lipid accessibility for intracellular energy and membrane production. Whereas formed at the peripheral and perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum, LDs are degraded either in the cytosol by lipolysis or in the vacuoles/lysosomes by autophagy. Autophagy is a regulated breakdown of dysfunctional, damaged, or surplus cellular components. The selective autophagy of LDs is called lipophagy. Here, we review LDs and their degradation by lipophagy in yeast, which proceeds via the micrometer-scale raft-like lipid domains in the vacuolar membrane. These vacuolar microdomains form during nutrient deprivation and facilitate internalization of LDs via the vacuolar membrane invagination and scission. The resultant intra-vacuolar autophagic bodies with LDs inside are broken down by vacuolar lipases and proteases. This type of lipophagy is called microlipophagy as it resembles microautophagy, the type of autophagy when substrates are sequestered right at the surface of a lytic compartment. Yeast microlipophagy via the raft-like vacuolar microdomains is a great model system to study the role of lipid domains in microautophagic pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; lipid droplets; lipid rafts; lipophagy; microautophagy; microlipophagy; organelle homeostasis; vacuolar microdomains; vacuole; yeast autophagy; lipid droplets; lipid rafts; lipophagy; microautophagy; microlipophagy; organelle homeostasis; vacuolar microdomains; vacuole; yeast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, M.A.; Kumar, R.; Sanchez, E.; Nazarko, T.Y. Lipid Droplets and Their Autophagic Turnover via the Raft-Like Vacuolar Microdomains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158144

AMA Style

Rahman MA, Kumar R, Sanchez E, Nazarko TY. Lipid Droplets and Their Autophagic Turnover via the Raft-Like Vacuolar Microdomains. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):8144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahman, Muhammad Arifur, Ravinder Kumar, Enrique Sanchez, and Taras Y. Nazarko. 2021. "Lipid Droplets and Their Autophagic Turnover via the Raft-Like Vacuolar Microdomains" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 8144. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158144

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