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The Intestinal Microbiota: Impacts of Antibiotics Therapy, Colonization Resistance, and Diseases

1
Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
2
Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng, Kunming 650500, China
3
Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, College of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tomasz Brzozowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126597
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 20 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
Trillions of microbes exist in the human body, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. The main role of the intestinal microbiome is the fermentation of non-digestible substrates and increased growth of beneficial microbes that produce key antimicrobial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, etc., to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes besides other functions. Intestinal microbiota can prevent pathogen colonization through the mechanism of colonization resistance. A wide range of resistomes are present in both beneficial and pathogenic microbes. Giving antibiotic exposure to the intestinal microbiome (both beneficial and hostile) can trigger a resistome response, affecting colonization resistance. The following review provides a mechanistic overview of the intestinal microbiome and the impacts of antibiotic therapy on pathogen colonization and diseases. Further, we also discuss the epidemiology of immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for nosocomial infections, colonization and decolonization of multi-drug resistant organisms in the intestine, and the direct and indirect mechanisms that govern colonization resistance to the pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestinal microbiota; antibiotics; pathogens; colonization resistance; diseases intestinal microbiota; antibiotics; pathogens; colonization resistance; diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shah, T.; Baloch, Z.; Shah, Z.; Cui, X.; Xia, X. The Intestinal Microbiota: Impacts of Antibiotics Therapy, Colonization Resistance, and Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126597

AMA Style

Shah T, Baloch Z, Shah Z, Cui X, Xia X. The Intestinal Microbiota: Impacts of Antibiotics Therapy, Colonization Resistance, and Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126597

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shah, Taif, Zulqarnain Baloch, Zahir Shah, Xiuming Cui, and Xueshan Xia. 2021. "The Intestinal Microbiota: Impacts of Antibiotics Therapy, Colonization Resistance, and Diseases" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126597

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