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Review

Estrogen Receptor Modulators in Viral Infections Such as SARS−CoV−2: Therapeutic Consequences

1
BIOCEV, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 252 50 Vestec, Czech Republic
2
Department of Paediatrics and Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute of Anatomy, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Dermatovenereology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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BIOCEV, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, 252 50 Vestec, Czech Republic
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Department of Neurology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Caruso and Miriam Rossi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126551
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 12 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Interactions and Mechanisms of COVID-19 Inhibition)
COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS−CoV−2 coronavirus. The worldwide epidemiologic data showed higher mortality in males compared to females, suggesting a hypothesis about the protective effect of estrogens against severe disease progression with the ultimate end being patient’s death. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential effect of estrogens and other modulators of estrogen receptors on COVID-19. While estrogen receptor activation shows complex effects on the patient’s organism, such as an influence on the cardiovascular/pulmonary/immune system which includes lower production of cytokines responsible for the cytokine storm, the receptor-independent effects directly inhibits viral replication. Furthermore, it inhibits the interaction of IL-6 with its receptor complex. Interestingly, in addition to natural hormones, phytestrogens and even synthetic molecules are able to interact with the estrogen receptor and exhibit some anti-COVID-19 activity. From this point of view, estrogen receptor modulators have the potential to be included in the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic arsenal. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS−CoV−2; estrogen; estrogen receptor; viral replication; IL-6; cytokine storm COVID-19; SARS−CoV−2; estrogen; estrogen receptor; viral replication; IL-6; cytokine storm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abramenko, N.; Vellieux, F.; Tesařová, P.; Kejík, Z.; Kaplánek, R.; Lacina, L.; Dvořánková, B.; Rösel, D.; Brábek, J.; Tesař, A.; Jakubek, M.; Smetana, K., Jr. Estrogen Receptor Modulators in Viral Infections Such as SARS−CoV−2: Therapeutic Consequences. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126551

AMA Style

Abramenko N, Vellieux F, Tesařová P, Kejík Z, Kaplánek R, Lacina L, Dvořánková B, Rösel D, Brábek J, Tesař A, Jakubek M, Smetana K Jr.. Estrogen Receptor Modulators in Viral Infections Such as SARS−CoV−2: Therapeutic Consequences. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abramenko, Nikita, Fréderic Vellieux, Petra Tesařová, Zdeněk Kejík, Robert Kaplánek, Lukáš Lacina, Barbora Dvořánková, Daniel Rösel, Jan Brábek, Adam Tesař, Milan Jakubek, and Karel Smetana Jr. 2021. "Estrogen Receptor Modulators in Viral Infections Such as SARS−CoV−2: Therapeutic Consequences" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6551. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126551

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