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Review

Effects of Berry Anthocyanins on Cognitive Performance, Vascular Function and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Intervention Studies in Humans

1
Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
BioActor BV, Gaetano Martinolaan 85, 6229 GS Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joana Oliveira
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126482
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
Supplementation with anthocyanins, which are a type of flavonoids mainly found in various berries, is hypothesized to be a promising approach to lower the risk of developing cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of dietary intervention trials describing effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance in humans, while also addressing potential underlying mechanisms. A total of 1197 articles were identified through a systematic search, and 49 studies reporting effects on cognitive performance (n = 18), vascular function (n = 22), or cardiometabolic risk markers (n = 32) were included. Significant improvements were observed on memory, while some of the studies also reported effects on attention and psychomotor speed or executive function. Vascular function markers such as brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also affected and consistent evidence was provided for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on endothelial function. Finally, studies reported improvements in blood pressure, but effects on metabolic risk markers (e.g. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism) were less consistent. In conclusion, this review provides evidence for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance as memory improved. Whether observed anthocyanin-induced improvements in vascular function and blood pressure underlie beneficial effects on cognitive performance warrants further study. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; cognitive performance; vascular function; cardiometabolic risk markers anthocyanins; cognitive performance; vascular function; cardiometabolic risk markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahles, S.; Joris, P.J.; Plat, J. Effects of Berry Anthocyanins on Cognitive Performance, Vascular Function and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Intervention Studies in Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126482

AMA Style

Ahles S, Joris PJ, Plat J. Effects of Berry Anthocyanins on Cognitive Performance, Vascular Function and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Intervention Studies in Humans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126482

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahles, Sanne, Peter J. Joris, and Jogchum Plat. 2021. "Effects of Berry Anthocyanins on Cognitive Performance, Vascular Function and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Intervention Studies in Humans" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6482. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126482

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