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Article

Null cyp1b1 Activity in Zebrafish Leads to Variable Craniofacial Defects Associated with Altered Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Lipid Metabolism Genes

1
Área de Genética, Facultad de Medicina de Albacete, Instituto de Investigación en Discapacidades Neurológicas (IDINE), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 02006 Albacete, Spain
2
Cooperative Research Network on Age-Related Ocular Pathology, Visual and Life Quality (OFTARED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Seong-kyu Choe and Cheol-Hee Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126430
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 12 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Powerful Model for Genetics and Genomics)
CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in oxidative metabolism of different endogenous lipids and drugs. The loss of function (LoF) of this gene underlies many cases of recessive primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), an infrequent disease and a common cause of infantile loss of vision in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to generate a cyp1b1 knockout zebrafish model. The zebrafish line did not exhibit glaucoma-related phenotypes; however, adult mutant zebrafish presented variable craniofacial alterations, including uni- or bilateral craniofacial alterations with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Transcriptomic analyses of seven-dpf cyp1b1-KO zebrafish revealed differentially expressed genes related to extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, cell growth and proliferation, lipid metabolism and inflammation. Overall, this study provides evidence for the complexity of the phenotypes and molecular pathways associated with cyp1b1 LoF, as well as for the dysregulation of extracellular matrix gene expression as one of the mechanisms underlying cyp1b1 disruption-associated pathogenicity.
CYP1B1 loss of function (LoF) is the main known genetic alteration present in recessive primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), an infrequent disease characterized by delayed embryonic development of the ocular iridocorneal angle; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To model CYP1B1 LoF underlying PCG, we developed a cyp1b1 knockout (KO) zebrafish line using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. This line carries the c.535_667del frameshift mutation that results in the 72% mRNA reduction with the residual mRNA predicted to produce an inactive truncated protein (p.(His179Glyfs*6)). Microphthalmia and jaw maldevelopment were observed in 23% of F0 somatic mosaic mutant larvae (144 hpf). These early phenotypes were not detected in cyp1b1-KO F3 larvae (144 hpf), but 27% of adult (four months) zebrafish exhibited uni- or bilateral craniofacial alterations, indicating the existence of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. These phenotypes increased to 86% in the adult offspring of inbred progenitors with craniofacial defects. No glaucoma-related phenotypes were observed in cyp1b1 mutants. Transcriptomic analyses of the offspring (seven dpf) of cyp1b1-KO progenitors with adult-onset craniofacial defects revealed functionally enriched differentially expressed genes related to extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, cell growth and proliferation, lipid metabolism (retinoids, steroids and fatty acids and oxidation–reduction processes that include several cytochrome P450 genes) and inflammation. In summary, this study shows the complexity of the phenotypes and molecular pathways associated with cyp1b1 LoF, with species dependency, and provides evidence for the dysregulation of extracellular matrix gene expression as one of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity associated with cyp1b1 disruption. View Full-Text
Keywords: CYP1B1; craniofacial development; CRISPR/Cas9; congenital glaucoma; cyp1b1-KO zebrafish CYP1B1; craniofacial development; CRISPR/Cas9; congenital glaucoma; cyp1b1-KO zebrafish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alexandre-Moreno, S.; Bonet-Fernández, J.-M.; Atienzar-Aroca, R.; Aroca-Aguilar, J.-D.; Escribano, J. Null cyp1b1 Activity in Zebrafish Leads to Variable Craniofacial Defects Associated with Altered Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Lipid Metabolism Genes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126430

AMA Style

Alexandre-Moreno S, Bonet-Fernández J-M, Atienzar-Aroca R, Aroca-Aguilar J-D, Escribano J. Null cyp1b1 Activity in Zebrafish Leads to Variable Craniofacial Defects Associated with Altered Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Lipid Metabolism Genes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alexandre-Moreno, Susana, Juan-Manuel Bonet-Fernández, Raquel Atienzar-Aroca, José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar, and Julio Escribano. 2021. "Null cyp1b1 Activity in Zebrafish Leads to Variable Craniofacial Defects Associated with Altered Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Lipid Metabolism Genes" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126430

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