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Longitudinal Changes in Diet Cause Repeatable and Largely Reversible Shifts in Gut Microbial Communities of Laboratory Mice and Are Observed across Segments of the Entire Intestinal Tract
Review

Diet-Regulating Microbiota and Host Immune System in Liver Disease

Institute for Liver and Digestive Diseases, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon 24253, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editor: Silvia Melgar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126326
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
The gut microbiota has been known to modulate the immune responses in chronic liver diseases. Recent evidence suggests that effects of dietary foods on health care and human diseases are related to both the immune reaction and the microbiome. The gut-microbiome and intestinal immune system play a central role in the control of bacterial translocation-induced liver disease. Dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, translocation, endotoxemia, and the direct effects of metabolites are the main events in the gut-liver axis, and immune responses act on every pathways of chronic liver disease. Microbiome-derived metabolites or bacteria themselves regulate immune cell functions such as recognition or activation of receptors, the control of gene expression by epigenetic change, activation of immune cells, and the integration of cellular metabolism. Here, we reviewed recent reports about the immunologic role of gut microbiotas in liver disease, highlighting the role of diet in chronic liver disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune response; gut-microbiota; gut-liver axis; liver disease immune response; gut-microbiota; gut-liver axis; liver disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eom, J.A.; Kwon, G.H.; Kim, N.Y.; Park, E.J.; Won, S.M.; Jeong, J.J.; Raja, G.; Gupta, H.; Asmelash Gebru, Y.; Sharma, S.; Choi, Y.R.; Kim, H.S.; Yoon, S.J.; Hyun, J.Y.; Jeong, M.K.; Park, H.J.; Min, B.H.; Choi, M.R.; Kim, D.J.; Suk, K.T. Diet-Regulating Microbiota and Host Immune System in Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126326

AMA Style

Eom JA, Kwon GH, Kim NY, Park EJ, Won SM, Jeong JJ, Raja G, Gupta H, Asmelash Gebru Y, Sharma S, Choi YR, Kim HS, Yoon SJ, Hyun JY, Jeong MK, Park HJ, Min BH, Choi MR, Kim DJ, Suk KT. Diet-Regulating Microbiota and Host Immune System in Liver Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eom, Jung A., Goo H. Kwon, Na Y. Kim, Eun J. Park, Sung M. Won, Jin J. Jeong, Ganesan Raja, Haripriya Gupta, Yoseph Asmelash Gebru, Satyapriya Sharma, Ye R. Choi, Hyeong S. Kim, Sang J. Yoon, Ji Y. Hyun, Min K. Jeong, Hee J. Park, Byeong H. Min, Mi R. Choi, Dong J. Kim, and Ki T. Suk 2021. "Diet-Regulating Microbiota and Host Immune System in Liver Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126326

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