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Article

Interspecies Behavioral Variability of Medaka Fish Assessed by Comparative Phenomics

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Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
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Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
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Department of Applied Chemistry, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 900391, Taiwan
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Faculty of Pharmacy and The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1008, Philippines
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Department of Aquatic Biosciences, National Chiayi University, 300 University Rd., Chiayi 600, Taiwan
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Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
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Research Center for Aquatic Toxicology and Pharmacology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonino Germana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115686
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 23 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Recently, medaka has been used as a model organism in various research fields. However, even though it possesses several advantages over zebrafish, fewer studies were done in medaka compared to zebrafish, especially with regard to its behavior. Thus, to provide more information regarding its behavior and to demonstrate the behavioral differences between several species of medaka, we compared the behavioral performance and biomarker expression in the brain between four medaka fishes, Oryzias latipes, Oryzias dancena, Oryzias woworae, and Oryzias sinensis. We found that each medaka species explicitly exhibited different behaviors to each other, which might be related to the different basal levels of several biomarkers. Furthermore, by phenomics and genomic-based clustering, the differences between these medaka fishes were further investigated. Here, the phenomic-based clustering was based on the behavior results, while the genomic-based clustering was based on the sequence of the nd2 gene. As we expected, both clusterings showed some resemblances to each other in terms of the interspecies relationship between medaka and zebrafish. However, this similarity was not displayed by both clusterings in the medaka interspecies comparisons. Therefore, these results suggest a re-interpretation of several prior studies in comparative biology. We hope that these results contribute to the growing database of medaka fish phenotypes and provide one of the foundations for future phenomics studies of medaka fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: medaka; behavior; phenomics; interspecies medaka; behavior; phenomics; interspecies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Audira, G.; Siregar, P.; Chen, K.H.-C.; Roldan, M.J.M.; Huang, J.-C.; Lai, H.-T.; Hsiao, C.-D. Interspecies Behavioral Variability of Medaka Fish Assessed by Comparative Phenomics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115686

AMA Style

Audira G, Siregar P, Chen KH-C, Roldan MJM, Huang J-C, Lai H-T, Hsiao C-D. Interspecies Behavioral Variability of Medaka Fish Assessed by Comparative Phenomics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Audira, Gilbert, Petrus Siregar, Kelvin H.-C. Chen, Marri J.M. Roldan, Jong-Chin Huang, Hong-Thih Lai, and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2021. "Interspecies Behavioral Variability of Medaka Fish Assessed by Comparative Phenomics" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5686. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115686

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