Next Article in Journal
Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics, Clozapine, Quetiapine and Brexpiprazole on Astroglial Transmission Associated with Connexin43
Next Article in Special Issue
Complex Genetic Interactions between Piwi and HP1a in the Repression of Transposable Elements and Tissue-Specific Genes in the Ovarian Germline
Previous Article in Journal
Dysfunction of the Neurovascular Unit in Ischemic Stroke: Highlights on microRNAs and Exosomes as Potential Biomarkers and Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Contemporary Transposon Tools: A Review and Guide through Mechanisms and Applications of Sleeping Beauty, piggyBac and Tol2 for Genome Engineering
 
 
Article

Widespread Exaptation of L1 Transposons for Transcription Factor Binding in Breast Cancer

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Teresa Capriglione
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115625
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transposable Elements II)
L1 transposons occupy 17% of the human genome and are widely exapted for the regulation of human genes, particularly in breast cancer, where we have previously shown abundant cancer-specific transcription factor (TF) binding sites within the L1PA2 subfamily. In the current study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of TF binding activities in primate-specific L1 subfamilies and identified pervasive exaptation events amongst these evolutionarily related L1 transposons. By motif scanning, we predicted diverse and abundant TF binding potentials within the L1 transposons. We confirmed substantial TF binding activities in the L1 subfamilies using TF binding sites consolidated from an extensive collection of publicly available ChIP-seq datasets. Young L1 subfamilies (L1HS, L1PA2 and L1PA3) contributed abundant TF binding sites in MCF7 cells, primarily via their 5′ UTR. This is expected as the L1 5′ UTR hosts cis-regulatory elements that are crucial for L1 replication and mobilisation. Interestingly, the ancient L1 subfamilies, where 5′ truncation was common, displayed comparable TF binding capacity through their 3′ ends, suggesting an alternative exaptation mechanism in L1 transposons that was previously unnoticed. Overall, primate-specific L1 transposons were extensively exapted for TF binding in MCF7 breast cancer cells and are likely prominent genetic players modulating breast cancer transcriptional regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; transposon; exaptation; transcription factor; transcriptional regulation; L1; LINE1; transcriptomics breast cancer; transposon; exaptation; transcription factor; transcriptional regulation; L1; LINE1; transcriptomics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, J.-C.; Rothnagel, J.A.; Upton, K.R. Widespread Exaptation of L1 Transposons for Transcription Factor Binding in Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5625. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115625

AMA Style

Jiang J-C, Rothnagel JA, Upton KR. Widespread Exaptation of L1 Transposons for Transcription Factor Binding in Breast Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5625. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115625

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Jiayue-Clara, Joseph A. Rothnagel, and Kyle R. Upton. 2021. "Widespread Exaptation of L1 Transposons for Transcription Factor Binding in Breast Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5625. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115625

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop