Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity. Since treating vasospasm has not inevitably led to an improvement in outcome, the actual emphasis is on finding neuroprotective therapies in the early phase following aSAH to prevent secondary brain injury in the later phase of disease. Within the early phase, neuroinflammation, thromboinflammation, disturbances in brain metabolism and early neuroprotective therapies directed against delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) came into focus. Herein, the role of neuroinflammation, thromboinflammation and metabolism in aSAH is depicted. Potential neuroprotective strategies regarding neuroinflammation target microglia activation, metalloproteases, autophagy and the pathway via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), NF-κB and finally the release of cytokines like TNFα or IL-1. Following the link to thromboinflammation, potential neuroprotective therapies try to target microthrombus formation, platelets and platelet receptors as well as clot clearance and immune cell infiltration. Potential neuroprotective strategies regarding metabolism try to re-balance the mismatch of energy need and supply following aSAH, for example, in restoring fuel to the TCA cycle or bypassing distinct energy pathways. Overall, this review addresses current neuroprotective strategies in aSAH, hopefully leading to future translational therapy options to prevent secondary brain injury.
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