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Review

α-Helices in the Type III Secretion Effectors: A Prevalent Feature with Versatile Roles

1
Unit of Technology & Service Ultrastructural Bio-Imaging (UTechS UBI), Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
2
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Nikolaou Plastira 100, Heraklion, 70013 Crete, Greece
3
Department of Biology, Voutes University Campus, University of Crete, Heraklion, 70013 Crete, Greece
4
Department of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115412
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are multicomponent nanomachines located at the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Their main function is to transport bacterial proteins either extracellularly or directly into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Type III Secretion effectors (T3SEs), latest to be secreted T3S substrates, are destined to act at the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm and occasionally at the nucleus, hijacking cellular processes through mimicking eukaryotic proteins. A broad range of functions is attributed to T3SEs, ranging from the manipulation of the host cell’s metabolism for the benefit of the bacterium to bypassing the host’s defense mechanisms. To perform this broad range of manipulations, T3SEs have evolved numerous novel folds that are compatible with some basic requirements: they should be able to easily unfold, pass through the narrow T3SS channel, and refold to an active form when on the other side. In this review, the various folds of T3SEs are presented with the emphasis placed on the functional and structural importance of α-helices and helical domains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Type III Secretion System (T3SS); Type III Secretion effector (T3SE); dictionary of secondary structure in proteins (DSSP); 4-α-helix bundle; coiled coil; Novel E3 Ligase (NEL); Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE); Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) Type III Secretion System (T3SS); Type III Secretion effector (T3SE); dictionary of secondary structure in proteins (DSSP); 4-α-helix bundle; coiled coil; Novel E3 Ligase (NEL); Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE); Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gazi, A.D.; Kokkinidis, M.; Fadouloglou, V.E. α-Helices in the Type III Secretion Effectors: A Prevalent Feature with Versatile Roles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115412

AMA Style

Gazi AD, Kokkinidis M, Fadouloglou VE. α-Helices in the Type III Secretion Effectors: A Prevalent Feature with Versatile Roles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gazi, Anastasia D., Michael Kokkinidis, and Vasiliki E. Fadouloglou 2021. "α-Helices in the Type III Secretion Effectors: A Prevalent Feature with Versatile Roles" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115412

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