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Differential Contribution of N- and C-Terminal Regions of HIF1α and HIF2α to Their Target Gene Selectivity
Open AccessReview

The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Post-Translational Modifications in Regulating Its Localisation, Stability, and Activity

1
Department of Molecular Physiology and Cell Signalling, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZB, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry and System Biology, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZB, UK
3
Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010268
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
The hypoxia signalling pathway enables adaptation of cells to decreased oxygen availability. When oxygen becomes limiting, the central transcription factors of the pathway, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), are stabilised and activated to induce the expression of hypoxia-regulated genes, thereby maintaining cellular homeostasis. Whilst hydroxylation has been thoroughly described as the major and canonical modification of the HIF-α subunits, regulating both HIF stability and activity, a range of other post-translational modifications decorating the entire protein play also a crucial role in altering HIF localisation, stability, and activity. These modifications, their conservation throughout evolution, and their effects on HIF-dependent signalling are discussed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; HIF-1α; HIF-2α; posttranslational modifications; phosphorylation; cysteine phosphorylation; methylation; acetylation; ubiquitination; sumoylation; S-nitrosylation; signalling hypoxia; HIF-1α; HIF-2α; posttranslational modifications; phosphorylation; cysteine phosphorylation; methylation; acetylation; ubiquitination; sumoylation; S-nitrosylation; signalling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Albanese, A.; Daly, L.A.; Mennerich, D.; Kietzmann, T.; Sée, V. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Post-Translational Modifications in Regulating Its Localisation, Stability, and Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 268. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010268

AMA Style

Albanese A, Daly LA, Mennerich D, Kietzmann T, Sée V. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Post-Translational Modifications in Regulating Its Localisation, Stability, and Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):268. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010268

Chicago/Turabian Style

Albanese, Adam; Daly, Leonard A.; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sée, Violaine. 2021. "The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Post-Translational Modifications in Regulating Its Localisation, Stability, and Activity" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 1: 268. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010268

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